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SQL: The Complete Reference
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Figure 17-25.
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The OPEN statement syntax diagram
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The single parameter of the OPEN statement is the name of the cursor to be opened. This cursor must have been previously declared by a DECLARE CURSOR statement. If the query associated with the cursor contains an error, the OPEN statement will produce a negative SQLCODE value. Most query-processing errors, such as a reference to an unknown table, an ambiguous column name, or an attempt to retrieve data from a table without the proper permission, will be reported as a result of the OPEN statement. In practice, very few errors occur during the subsequent FETCH statements. Once opened, a cursor remains in the open state until it is closed with the CLOSE statement. The DBMS also closes all open cursors automatically at the end of a transaction (that is, when the DBMS executes a COMMIT or ROLLBACK statement). After the cursor has been closed, it can be reopened by executing the OPEN statement a second time. Note that the DBMS restarts the query from scratch each time it executes the OPEN statement.
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The FETCH Statement
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The FETCH statement, shown in Figure 17-26, retrieves the next row of query results for use by the application program. The cursor named in the FETCH statement specifies which row of query results is to be fetched. It must identify a cursor previously opened by the OPEN statement. The FETCH statement fetches the row of data items into a list of host variables, which are specified in the INTO clause of the statement. An indicator variable can be associated with each host variable to handle retrieval of NULL data. The behavior of
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Figure 17-26.
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The FETCH statement syntax diagram
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the indicator variable and the values that it can assume are identical to those described earlier in the Single-Row Queries section for the singleton SELECT statement. The number of host variables in the list must be the same as the number of columns in the query results, and the data types of the host variables must be compatible, column by column, with the columns of query results. As shown in Figure 17-27, the FETCH statement moves the cursor through the query results, row by row, according to these rules: I The OPEN statement positions the cursor before the first row of query results. In this state, the cursor has no current row. I The FETCH statement advances the cursor to the next available row of query results, if there is one. This row becomes the current row of the cursor. I If a FETCH statement advances the cursor past the last row of query results, the FETCH statement returns a NOT FOUND warning. In this state, the cursor again has no current row. I The CLOSE statement ends access to the query results and places the cursor in a closed state. If there are no rows of query results, the OPEN statement still positions the cursor before the (empty) query results and returns successfully. The program cannot detect that the OPEN statement has produced an empty set of query results. However, the very first FETCH statement produces the NOT FOUND warning and positions the cursor after the end of the (empty) query results.
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Figure 17-27.
Cursor positioning with OPEN, FETCH, and CLOSE
SQL: The Complete Reference
The CLOSE Statement
The CLOSE statement, shown in Figure 17-28, conceptually closes the table of query results created by the OPEN statement, ending access by the application program. Its single parameter is the name of the cursor associated with the query results, which must be a cursor previously opened by an OPEN statement. The CLOSE statement can be executed any time after the cursor has been opened. In particular, it is not necessary to FETCH all rows of query results before closing the cursor, although this will usually be the case. All cursors are automatically closed at the end of a transaction. Once a cursor is closed, its query results are no longer available to the application program.
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