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The EXECUTE Statement
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The EXECUTE statement, shown in Figure 18-6, is unique to dynamic SQL. It asks the DBMS to execute a statement previously prepared with the PREPARE statement. You can execute any statement that can be prepared, with one exception. Like the EXECUTE IMMEDIATE statement, the EXECUTE statement cannot be used to execute a SELECT statement, because it lacks a mechanism for handling query results. If the dynamic statement to be executed contains one or more parameter markers, the EXECUTE statement must provide a value for each of the parameters. The values can be provided in two different ways, described in the next two sections. The ANSI/ ISO SQL2 standard includes both of these methods.
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The PREPARE statement syntax diagram
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Dynamic SQL *
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Figure 18-6.
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The EXECUTE statement syntax diagram
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EXECUTE with Host Variables
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The easiest way to pass parameter values to the EXECUTE statement is by specifying a list of host variables in the USING clause. The EXECUTE statement substitutes the values of the host variables, in sequence, for the parameter markers in the prepared statement text. The host variables thus serve as input host variables for the dynamically executed statement. This technique was used in the program shown in Figure 18-4. It is supported by all of the popular DBMS brands that support dynamic SQL and is included in the ANSI/ISO SQL2 standard for dynamic SQL. The number of host variables in the USING clause must match the number of parameter markers in the dynamic statement, and the data type of each host variable must be compatible with the data type required for the corresponding parameter. Each host variable in the list may also have a companion host indicator variable. If the indicator variable contains a negative value when the EXECUTE statement is processed, the corresponding parameter marker is assigned the NULL value.
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EXECUTE with SQLDA
The second way to pass parameters to the EXECUTE statement is with a special dynamic SQL data structure called a SQL Data Area, or SQLDA. You must use a SQLDA to pass parameters when you don t know the number of parameters to be passed and their data types at the time that you write the program. For example, suppose you wanted to modify the general-purpose update program in Figure 18-4 so that the user could select more than one column to be updated. You could easily modify the program to generate an UPDATE statement with a variable number of assignments, but the list of host variables in the EXECUTE statement poses a problem; it must be replaced with a variable-length list. The SQLDA provides a way to specify such a variable-length parameter list. Figure 18-7 shows the layout of the SQLDA used by the IBM databases, including DB2, which set the de facto standard for dynamic SQL. Most other DBMS products also use this IBM SQLDA format or one very similar to it. The ANSI/ISO SQL2 standard provides a similar structure, called a SQL Descriptor Area. The types of information contained in the ANSI/ISO SQL Descriptor Area and the DB2-style SQLDA are the same, and both structures play the same role in dynamic SQL processing. However, the details of use how program locations are associated with SQL statement parameters,
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struct sqlda { unsigned char sqldaid[8]; long sqldabc; short sqln; short sqld; struct sqlvar { short sqltype; short sqllen; unsigned char *sqldata; short *sqlind; struct sqlname { short length; unsigned char data[30]; } sqlname; } sqlvar[1]; } ;
Figure 18-7.
The SQL Data Area (SQLDA)for IBM databases
how information is placed into the descriptor area and retrieved from it, and so on are quite different. In practice, the DB2-style SQLDA is the more important, because dynamic SQL support appeared in most major DBMS brands, modeled on the DB2 implementation, long before the SQL2 standard was written. The SQLDA is a variable-size data structure with two distinct parts: I The fixed part is located at the beginning of the SQLDA. Its fields identify the data structure as a SQLDA and specify the size of this particular SQLDA. I The variable part is an array of one or more SQLVAR data structures. When you use a SQLDA to pass parameters to an EXECUTE statement, there must be one SQLVAR structure for each parameter. The fields in the SQLVAR structure describe the data being passed to the EXECUTE statement as a parameter value: I The SQLTYPE field contains an integer data type code that specifies the data type of the parameter being passed. For example, the DB2 data type code is 500 for a 2-byte integer, 496 for a 4-byte integer, and 448 for a variable-length character string. I The SQLLEN field specifies the length of the data being passed. It will contain a two for a 2-byte integer and a four for a 4-byte integer. When you pass a character string as a parameter, SQLLEN contains the number of characters in the string.
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I The SQLDATA field is a pointer to the data area within your program that contains the parameter value. The DBMS uses this pointer to find the data value as it executes the dynamic SQL statement. The SQLTYPE and SQLLEN fields tell the DBMS which type of data is being pointed to and its length. I The SQLIND field is a pointer to a 2-byte integer that is used as an indicator variable for the parameter. The DBMS checks the indicator variable to determine whether you are passing a NULL value. If you are not using an indicator variable for a particular parameter, the SQLIND field must be set to zero. The other fields in the SQLVAR and SQLDA structures are not used to pass parameter values to the EXECUTE statement. They are used when you use a SQLDA to retrieve data from the database, as described later in the Dynamic Queries section. Figure 18-8 shows a dynamic SQL program that uses a SQLDA to specify input parameters. The program updates the SALESREPS table, but it allows the user to select the columns that are to be updated at the beginning of the program. Then it enters a loop, prompting the user for an employee number and then prompting for a new value
main() { /* This program updates user-specified columns of the SALESREPS table. It first asks the user to select the columns to be updated, and then prompts repeatedly for the employee number of a salesperson and new values for the selected columns. */ #define COLCNT 6 exec sql include sqlca; exec sql include sqlda; exec sql begin declare section; char stmtbuf[2001]; exec sql end declare section; char *malloc() struct { char prompt[31]; char name[31]; short typecode; short buflen; char selected; } columns[] = { "Name", "Office , /* six columns in SALESREPS table */
/* SQL text to be executed */
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