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prompt for this column */ name for this column */ its data type code */ length of its buffer */ "selected" flag (y/n) */ "NAME", 449, 16, 'n', "REP_OFFICE", 497, 4, 'n',
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"Manager", "MANAGER", "Hire Date","HIRE_DATE", "Quota", "QUOTA", "Sales", "SALES", struct sqlda *parmda; struct sqlvar *parmvar; int parmcnt; int empl_num; */ int int */ char inbuf[101]; i; j; /* /* /* /*
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497, 4, 'n', 449, 12, 'n', 481, 8, 'n', 481, 8, 'n'};
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SQLDA for parameter values */ SQLVAR for current parm value */ running parameter count */ employee number entered by user
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/* index for columns[] array */ /* index for sqlvar array in sqlda /* input entered by user */
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/* Prompt the user to select the columns to be updated */ printf( *** Salesperson Update Program ***\n\n ); parmcnt = 1; for (i = 0; i < COLCNT; i++) { /* Ask about this column */ printf("Update %s column (y/n) "); gets(inbuf); if (inbuf[0] == 'y') { columns[i].selected = 'y'; parmcnt += 1; } } /* Allocate a SQLDA structure to pass parameter values */ parmda = malloc(16 = (44 * parmcnt)); strcpy(parmda -> sqldaid, "SQLDA "); parmda->sqldabc = (16 = (44 * parmcnt)); parmda->sqln = parmcnt; /* Start building the UPDATE statement in statement buffer */ strcpy(stmtbuf, "update orders set "); /* Loop through columns, processing the selected ones */ for (i = 0; j = 0; i++; i < COLCNT) { /* Skip over non-selected columns */ if (columns[i].selected == 'n') continue; /* Add an assignment to the dynamic UPDATE statement */
Figure 18-8.
Using EXECUTE with a SQLDA (continued)
18:
Dynamic SQL *
if (parmcnt > 0) strcat(stmtbuf, ", "); strcat(stmtbuf, columns[i].name); strcat(stmtbuf, " = "); /* Allocate space for data and indicator variable, and */ /* fill in the SQLVAR with information for this column */ parmvar = parmda -> sqlvar + j; parmvar -> sqltype = columns[i].typecode; parmvar -> sqllen = columns[i].buflen; parmvar -> sqldata = malloc(columns[i].buflen); parmvar -> sqlind = malloc920; 6 strcpy(parmvar -> sqlname.data, columns[i].prompt); j += 1; } /* Fill in the last SQLVAR for parameter in the WHERE clause */ strcat(stmbuf, " where empl_num = "); parmvar = parmda + parmcnt; parmvar->sqltype = 496; parmvar->sqllen = 4; parmvar->sqldata = &empl_num; parmvar->sqlind = 0; parmda->sqld = parmcnt;> 7 /* Ask the DBMS to compile the complete dynamic UPDATE statement */ exec sql prepare updatestmt from :stmtbuf; if (sqlca.sqlcode < 0) { printf("PREPARE error: %ld\n", sqlca.sqlcode); exit(); } /* Now loop, prompting for parameters and doing UPDATEs */ for ( ; ; ) { /* Prompt user for order number of order to be updated */ printf("\nEnter Salesperson s Employee Number: "); scanf("%ld", &empl_num); if (empl_num == 0) break; /* Get new values for the updated columns */ for (j = 0; j < (parmcnt-1); j++) { parmvar = parmda + j; printf("Enter new value for %s: ", parmvar->sqlname.data); gets(inbuf); if (inbuf[0] == '*') { /* If user enters '*', set column to a NULL value */ *(parmvar -> sqlind) = -1;
3 4 5
PROGRAMMING WITH SQL
Figure 18-8.
Using EXECUTE with a SQLDA (continued)
SQL: The Complete Reference
continue; } else { /* Otherwise, set indicator for non-NULL value */ *(parmvar -> sqlind) = 0; switch(parmvar -> sqltype) { case 481: /* Convert entered data to 8-byte floating point */ sscanf(inbuf, "%lf", parmvar -> sqldata); break; case 449: /* Pass entered data as variable-length string */ stccpy(parmvar -> sqldata, inbuf, strlen(inbuf)); parmvar -> sqllen = strlen(inbuf); break; case 501: /* Convert entered data to 4-byte integer */ sscanf(inbuf, "%ld", parmvar->sqldata); break; } } } /* Execute the statement */ exec sql execute updatestmt using :parmda; if (sqlca.sqlcode < 0) { printf("EXECUTE error: %ld\n", sqlca.sqlcode); exit(); } } /* All finished with updates */ exec sql execute immediate "commit work"; if (sqlca.sqlcode) printf("COMMIT error: %ld\n", sqlca.sqlcode); else printf("\nAll updates committed.\n"); exit(); }
Figure 18-8.
Using EXECUTE with a SQLDA (continued)
18:
Dynamic SQL *
for each column to be updated. If the user types an asterisk (*) in response to the new value prompt, the program assigns the corresponding column a NULL value. Because the user can select different columns each time the program is run, this program must use a SQLDA to pass the parameter values to the EXECUTE statement. The program illustrates the general technique for using a SQLDA, indicated by callouts in Figure 18-8: 1. The program allocates a SQLDA large enough to hold a SQLVAR structure for each parameter to be passed. It sets the SQLN field to indicate how many SQLVARs can be accommodated. 2. For each parameter to be passed, the program fills in one of the SQLVAR structures with information describing the parameter. 3. The program determines the data type of a parameter and places the correct data type code in the SQLTYPE field. 4. The program determines the length of the parameter and places it in the SQLLEN field. 5. The program allocates memory to hold the parameter value and puts the address of the allocated memory in the SQLDATA field. 6. The program allocates memory to hold an indicator variable for the parameter and puts the address of the indicator variable in the SQLIND field. 7. The program sets the SQLD field in the SQLDA header to indicate how many parameters are being passed. This tells the DBMS how many SQLVAR structures within the SQLDA contain valid data. 8. The program prompts the user for data values and places them into the data areas allocated in Steps 5 and 6. 9. The program uses an EXECUTE statement with the USING DESCRIPTOR clause to pass parameter values via the SQLDA. Note that this particular program copies the prompt string for each parameter value into the SQLNAME structure. The program does this solely for its own convenience; the DBMS ignores the SQLNAME structure when you use the SQLDA to pass parameters. Here is a sample user dialog with the program in Figure 18-8:
*** Salesperson Update Program *** Update Update Update Update Update Update Name column (y/n) y Office column (y/n) y Manager column (y/n) n Hire Date column (y/n) n Quota column (y/n) y Sales column (y/n) n PROGRAMMING WITH SQL
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