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ODBC and the SQL/CLI Standard
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Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a database-independent callable API suite originally developed by Microsoft. Although Microsoft plays an important role as a database software vendor, its development of ODBC was motivated even more by its role as a major operating system developer. Microsoft wanted to make it easier for developers of Windows applications to incorporate database access. But the large differences between the various database systems and their APIs made this very difficult. If an application developer wanted a program to work with several different DBMS brands, it had to provide a separate, specially written database interface module (usually called a driver) for each one. Each application program that wanted to provide access to multiple databases had to provide a set of drivers. Microsoft s solution to this problem was to create ODBC as a uniform, standardized database access interface, and incorporate it into the Windows operating system. For application developers, ODBC eliminated the need to write custom database drivers. For database vendors, ODBC provided a way to gain support from a broader range of application programs.
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The Call-Level Interface Standardization
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ODBC would have been important even as a Microsoft-only standard. However, Microsoft worked to make it a vendor-independent standard as well. A database vendor association called the SQL Access Group was working on standardizing client/server protocols for remote database access at about the same time as Microsoft s original development of ODBC. Microsoft persuaded the SQL Access Group to expand their
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focus and adopt ODBC as their standard for vendor-independent database access. Management of the SQL Access Group standard was eventually turned over to the European X/Open consortium, another standards organization, as part of its overall standards for a Common Application Environment (CAE). With the growing popularity of call-level APIs for database access, the official SQL standards groups eventually turned their attention to standardization of this aspect of SQL. The X/Open standard (based on Microsoft s earlier ODBC work) was taken as a starting point and slightly modified to create an official ANSI/ISO standard. The resulting SQL/Call-Level Interface (SQL/CLI) standard was published in 1995 as ANSI/ISO/IEC 9075-3-1995. With a few modifications, SQL/CLI became Part 3 of the SQL:1999 standard. Microsoft has evolved ODBC to conform to the official SQL/CLI standard. The CLI standard roughly forms the core level of Microsoft s ODBC 3 revision. Other, higherlevel capabilities of ODBC 3 go beyond the CLI specification to provide more API functionality and to deal with the specific problems of managing ODBC as part of the Windows operating system. In practice, the core-level ODBC capabilities and the SQL/CLI specification form the effective callable API standard. Because of its substantial advantages for both application developers and database vendors, ODBC/CLI has become a very widely supported standard. Virtually all SQL-based database systems provide an ODBC/CLI interface as one of their supported interfaces. Some DBMS brands have even adopted ODBC/CLI as their standard database API. Thousands of application programs support ODBC/CLI, including all of the leading programming tools packages, query- and forms-processing tools and report writers, and popular productivity software such as spreadsheets and graphics programs. The SQL/CLI standard includes about 40 different API calls, summarized in Table 19-2. The calls provide a comprehensive facility for establishing connections to a database server, executing SQL statements, retrieving and processing query results, and handling errors in database processing. They provide all of the capabilities available through the standard s embedded SQL interface, including both static SQL and dynamic SQL capabilities. The simple CLI program in Figure 19-11 repeats the program in Figure 19-3 and 17-14, but it uses the CLI functions. It follows the sequence of steps used by most CLI-based applications: 1. The program connects to the CLI and allocates data structures for its use. 2. It connects to a specific database server. 3. The program builds SQL statements in its memory buffers. 4. It makes CLI calls to request statement execution and check status. 5. Upon successful completion, it makes a CLI call to commit the database transaction. 6. It disconnects from the database and releases its data structures.
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