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The CLI processes SQL statements using a technique very similar to that described for dynamic embedded SQL in 18. The SQL statement is passed to the CLI in text form, as a character string. It can be executed in a one- or two-step process. Figure 19-14 shows the basic SQL statement-processing calls. The application program must first call SQLAllocHandle()to obtain a statement handle, which identifies the statement to the program and the CLI. All subsequent SQLExecDirect(), SQLPrepare(), and SQLExecute() calls reference this statement handle. When the handle is no longer needed, it is freed with a SQLFreeHandle() call. For one-step execution, the application program calls SQL SQLExecDirect(), passing the SQL statement text as one of the parameters to the call. The DBMS
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/* Directly execute a SQL statement */ short SQLExecDirect ( long stmtHdl, /* IN: statement handle */ char *stmttext, /* IN: SQL statement text */ short textlen) /* IN: statement text length */ /* Prepare a SQL statement short SQLPrepare ( long stmtHdl, char *stmttext, short textlen) */ /* IN: /* IN: /* IN: statement handle */ SQL statement text */ statement text length */
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/* Execute a previously-prepared SQL statement */ short SQLExecute ( long stmtHdl) /* IN: statement handle */ /* Bind a SQL statement parameter to a program data area */ short SQLBindParam ( long stmtHdl, /* IN: statement handle */ short parmnr, /* IN: parameter number (1,2,3...) */ short valtype, /* IN: data type of value supplied */ short parmtype, /* IN: data type of parameter */ short colsize, /* IN: column size */ short decdigits, /* IN: number of decimal digits */ void *value, /* IN: pointer to parameter value buf */ long *lenind) /* IN: pointer to length/indicator buf */ /* Get parameter-tag for next required dynamic parameter */ short SQLParamData ( long stmtHdl, /* IN: stmt handle w/dynamic parms */ void *prmtag) /* OUT: returned parameter-tag value */ /* Obtain detailed info about an item described by a CLI descriptor */ short SQLPutData ( long stmtHdl, /* IN: stmt handle w/dynamic parms */ void *prmdata, /* IN: buffer with data for parameter */ short prmlenind) /* IN: parameter length or NULL ind */
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Figure 19-14.
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processes the statement as a result of the call and returns the completion status of the statement. This one-step process was used in the simple example program in Figure 19-11. It corresponds to the one-step EXECUTE IMMEDIATE statement in embedded dynamic SQL, described in 18. For two-step execution, the application program calls SQLPrepare(), passing the SQL statement text as one of the parameters to the call. The DBMS analyzes the statement, determines how to carry it out, and retains this information. It does not immediately carry out the statement. Instead, subsequent calls to the SQLExecute() routine cause the statement to actually be executed. This two-step process corresponds exactly to the PREPARE and EXECUTE embedded dynamic SQL statements described in 18. You should always use it for any SQL operations that will be carried out repeatedly, because it causes the DBMS to go through the overhead of statement analysis and optimization only once, in response to the SQLPrepare() call. Parameters can be passed through the CLI to tailor the operation of the multiple SQLExecute() calls that follow.
Statement Execution with Parameters
In many cases, a SQL statement must be repeatedly executed with only changes in some of the values that it specifies. For example, an INSERT statement to add an order to the sample database is identical for every order except for the specific information about the customer number, product and manufacturer, and quantity ordered. As described in 18, for dynamic embedded SQL, such statements can be processed efficiently by specifying the variable parts of the statement as input parameters. The statement text passed to the SQLPrepare() call has a parameter marker a question mark ( ) in its text at each position where a parameter value is to be inserted. When the statement is later executed, values must be supplied for each of its input parameters. The most straightforward way to supply input parameter values is with the SQLBindParam() call. Each call to SQLBindParam() establishes a linkage between one of the parameter markers in the SQL statement (identified by number) and a variable in the application program (identified by its memory address). In addition, an association is optionally established with a second application program variable (an integer) that provides the length of variable-length input parameters. If the parameter is a NULL-terminated string like those used in C programs, a special negative code value, defined in the header file as the symbolic constant SQL_NTS, can be passed, indicating that the string length can be obtained from the data itself by the CLI routines. Similarly, a negative code is used to indicate a NULL value for an input parameter. If there are three input parameter markers in the statement, there will be three calls to SQLBindParam(), one for each input parameter. Once the association between application program variables (more accurately, program storage locations) and the statement parameters is established, the statement can be executed with a call to SQLExecute(). To change the parameter values for
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