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By providing a uniform API and its driver manager architecture, ODBC goes a long way toward providing a cross-vendor API for database access, but it s impossible to provide fully transparent access. The ODBC drivers for the various database systems can easily mask cosmetic differences in their SQL dialects and API suites, but more fundamental differences are difficult or impossible to mask. ODBC provides a partial solution to this problem by providing several different levels of ODBC capability, and by making each ODBC driver self-describing through the ODBC/CLI calls that return information about general functionality, supported functions, and supported data types. However, the existence of different capability levels and profiles effectively pushes the DBMS differences right back into the application program, which must deal with this nonuniformity of ODBC drivers. In practice, the vast majority of application programs rely on only the basic, core set of ODBC functionality and don t bother with more advanced features or profiles.
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One of the areas where ODBC offers capability beyond the SQL/CLI standard is the retrieval of information about the structure of a database from its system catalog. As a part of the ANSI/ISO SQL standard, the CLI assumes that this information (about tables, columns, privileges, and so forth) is available through the SQL2 Information Schema, as described in 16. ODBC doesn t assume the presence of an Information Schema. Instead, it provides a set of specialized functions, shown in Table 19-4, that provide information about the structure of a data source. By calling these functions and processing their results, an application program can determine, at runtime, information about the tables, columns, privileges, primary keys, foreign keys, and stored procedures that form the structure of a data source. The ODBC catalog functions typically aren t needed by an application program that is written for a specific purpose. However, they are essential for a general-purpose program, such as a query program, report generator, or data analysis tool. The catalog functions can be called any time after a connection to a data source has been made. For example, a report writing program might call SQLConnect() and then immediately call SQLTables() to determine which tables are available in the target data source. The tables could then be presented in a list on the screen, allowing the user to select which table should be used to generate a report. All of the catalog functions return their information as if they were a set of query results. The application program uses the techniques already described for CLI query processing to bind the columns of returned information to program variable areas. The program then calls SQLFetch() to work its way through the returned information. For example, in the results returned by the SQLTables() call, each SQLFetch()retrieves information about one table in the data source.
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0 1 100 99 1 2 Table 19-4.
Meaning
Statement completed successfully Successful completion with warning No data found (when retrieving query results) Data needed (required dynamic parameter missing) Error during SQL statement execution Error invalid handle supplied in call
ODBC Catalog Functions
19:
SQL APIs
Extended ODBC Capabilities
ODBC provides a set of extended capabilities beyond those specified in the SQL/CLI standard. Many of the capabilities are designed to improve the performance of ODBC-based applications by minimizing the number of ODBC function calls an application program must make and/or the amount of network traffic generated by the ODBC calls. Other capabilities provide useful features for maintaining database independence or aid an application program in the database connection process. Some of the capabilities are provided through the additional set of ODBC function calls shown in Table 19-5. Others are provided through statement or connection attributes. Many of these additional capabilities were introduced in the 3.0 revision of ODBC and are not yet supported by most ODBC drivers or ODBC-based applications.
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