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SQL: The Complete Reference
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/* Return total order amount for a customer */ create function get_tot_ords(c_num in integer) return number(16,2) as /* Declare one local variable to hold the total */ declare tot_ord number(16,2); begin /* Simple single-row query to get total */ select sum(amount) into tot_ord from orders where cust = c_num; /* return the retrieved value as fcn value */ return tot_ord; end;
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An Oracle PL/SQL stored function
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As the DBMS evaluates the search condition for each row of prospective query results, it uses the customer number of the current candidate row as an argument to the GET_TOT_ORDERS function and checks to see if it exceeds the $10,000 threshold. This same query could be expressed as a grouped query, with the ORDERS table also included in the FROM clause, and the results grouped by customer and salesperson. In many implementations, the DBMS carries out the grouped query more efficiently than the preceding one, which probably forces the DBMS to process the orders table once for each customer. Figure 20-8 shows the Informix SPL definition for the same stored function shown in Figure 20-7. Except for stylistic variations, it differs very little from the Oracle version. Transact-SQL does not have a stored function capability like the one illustrated in Figures 20-7 and 20-8. Transact-SQL stored procedures can explicitly return a status code, and they use a RETURN statement for this purpose. However, the returned value is always an integer status value. A zero return value indicates successful completion of the stored procedure; negative return values are used to indicate various types of errors. The system-defined stored procedures in Sybase Adaptive Server and Microsoft SQL Server all use this return status value convention. The return status of a called
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Database Processing and Stored Procedures
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/* Return total order amount for a customer */ create function get_tot_ords(c_num in integer) returning money(16,2) /* Declare one local variable to hold the total */ define tot_ord money(16,2); begin /* Simple single-row query to get total */ select sum(amount) into tot_ord from orders where cust = c_num; /* Return the retrieved value as fcn value */ return tot_ord; end function;
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An Informix SPL stored function
procedure can be stored into a local variable by using this assignment form of the EXECUTE statement:
declare sts_val int execute sts_val = add_cust XYZ Corporation , 2137, 30000.00, 50000.00, 103, Chicago
Returning Values via Parameters
The stored function capability provides only the ability to return a single value from a stored routine. Several stored procedure dialects provide a method for returning more than one value, by passing the values back to the calling routine through output parameters. The output parameters are listed in the stored procedure s parameter list, just like the input parameters seen in the previous examples. However, instead of being used to pass data values into the stored procedure when it is called, the output parameters are used to pass data back out of the stored procedure to the calling procedure. Figure 20-9 shows a PL/SQL stored procedure to retrieve the name of a customer, his or her salesperson, and the sales office to which the customer is assigned, given a
SQL: The Complete Reference
/* Get customer name, sales rep and office */ create procedure get_cust_info(c_num in integer, c_name out varchar(20), r_name out varchar(15), c_offc out varchar(15)) as begin /* Simple single-row query to get info */ select company, name, city into c_name, r_name, c_offc from customers, salesreps, offices where cust_num = c_num and empl_num = cust_rep and office = rep_office; end;
Figure 20-9.
PL/SQL stored procedure with output parameters
supplied customer number. The procedure has four parameters. The first one, CNUM, is an input parameter and supplies the requested customer number. The other three parameters are output parameters, used to pass the retrieved data values back to the calling procedure. In this simple example, the SELECT INTO form of the query places the returned variables directly into the output parameters. In a more complex stored procedure, the returned values might be calculated and placed into the output parameters with a PL/SQL assignment statement. When a stored procedure with output parameters is called, the value passed for each output parameter must be an acceptable target that can receive a returned data value. The target may be a local variable, for example, or a parameter of a higher-level procedure that is calling a lower-level procedure to do some work for it. Here is a fragment of an Oracle PL/SQL procedure that makes an appropriate call to the GET_CUST_INFO procedure in Figure 20-9:
/* Get the customer info for customer 2111 */ declare the_name varchar(20), the_rep varchar(15), the_city varchar(15); execute get_cust_info(2111, the_name, the_rep, the_city);
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