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/* Add a customer procedure */ create procedure add_cust ( c_name in varchar(20), /* input customer name */ c_num in integer, /* input customer number */ cred_lim in number(16,2), /* input credit limit */ tgt_sls in number(16,2), /* input target sales */ c_rep in integer, /* input salesrep empl # */ c_offc in varchar(15)) /* input office city */ as begin /* Insert new row of CUSTOMERS table */ insert into customers (cust_num, company, cust_rep, credit_limit) values (c_num, c_name, c_rep, cred_lim); if tgt_sales <= 20000.00 then /* Update row of SALESREPS table */ update salesreps set quota = quota + quota + tgt_sls where empl_num = c_rep; else /* Update row of SALESREPS table */ update salesreps set quota = quota + quota + 20000.00 where empl_num = c_rep; end if /* Update row of OFFICES table */ update offices set target = target + tgt_sls where city = c_offc; /* Commit transaction and we are done */ commit; end;
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In the Informix dialect, the same multiway branch structure is allowed. The keyword ELSIF becomes ELIF, but all other aspects remain the same.
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Another feature common to almost all stored procedure dialects is a construct for repeated execution of a group of statements (looping). Depending on the dialect, there may be support for Basic-style FOR loops (where an integer loop control value is counted up or counted down) or C-style WHILE loops with a test condition executed at the beginning or end of the loop. In the sample database, it s hard to come up with an uncontrived example of simple loop processing. Assume you want to process some group of statements repeatedly, while the value of a loop-control variable, named ITEM_NUM, ranges from 1 to 10. Here is an Oracle PL/SQL loop that handles this situation:
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/* Process each of ten items */ for item_num in 1..10 loop /* Process this particular item */ . . . /* Test whether to end the loop early */ exit when (item_num = special_item); end loop;
The statements in the body of the loop are normally executed ten times, each time with a larger integer value of the ITEM_NUM variable. The EXIT statement provides the capability to exit an Oracle PL/SQL loop early. It can be unconditional, or it can be used with a built-in test condition, as in this example. Here is the same loop structure expressed in Informix SPL, showing some of its additional capabilities and the dialectic differences from PL/SQL:
/* Process each of ten items */ for item_num = 1 to 10 step 1 /* Process this particular item */ . . . /* Test whether to end the loop early */ if (item_num = special_item) then exit for; end for;
The other common form of looping is when a sequence of statements is executed repeatedly while a certain condition exists or until a specified condition exists. Here is an Oracle PL/SQL loop construct that repeats indefinitely. Such a loop must, of course,
SQL: The Complete Reference
provide a test within the body of the loop that detects a loop-terminating condition (in this case, a match of two variable values) and explicitly exits the loop:
/* Repeatedly process some data */ loop /* Do some kind of processing each time */ . . . /* Test whether to end the loop early */ exit when (test_value = exit_value); end loop;
A more common looping construct is one that builds the test into the loop structure itself. The loop is repeatedly executed as long as the test is true. For example, suppose you want to reduce targets for the offices in the sample database until the total of the targets is less than $2,400,000. Each office s target is to be reduced by the same amount, which should be a multiple of $10,000. Here is a (not very efficient) Transact-SQL stored procedure loop that gradually lowers office targets until the total is below the threshold:
/* Lower targets until total below $2,400,000 */ while (select sum(target) from offices) < 2400000.00 begin update offices set target = target 10000.00 end
The BEGIN END block in this WHILE loop isn t strictly necessary, but most TransactSQL WHILE loops include one. Transact-SQL repeats the single SQL statement following the test condition as the body of the WHILE loop. If the body of the loop consists of more than one statement, you must use a BEGIN END block to group the statements. Here is the Oracle PL/SQL version of the same loop:
/* Lower targets until total below $2,400,000 */ select sum(target) into total_tgt from offices; while (total_tgt < 2400000.00) loop update offices set target = target 10000.00; select sum(target) into total_tgt from offices; end loop;
The subquery-style version of the SELECT statement from Transact-SQL has been replaced by the PL/SQL SELECT INTO form of the statement, with a local variable used to hold the total of the office targets. Each time the loop is executed, the OFFICES table is updated, and then the total of the targets is recalculated.
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