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Pros and Cons of Object-Oriented Databases
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Object-oriented databases have stirred up a storm of controversy in the database community. Proponents claim that object databases are essential to create a proper match between the programming and database data models. They claim that the rigid, fixed, row/column structure of relational tables is a holdover from the punch-card era of data processing with its fixed data fields and record orientation. A more flexible model, where classes of objects can be similar to one another (that is, share certain attributes) but also different from one another is essential, they claim, to effectively model real-world situations. Another claim is that the multitable joins that are an integral part of the relational data model inherently create database overhead and make relational technology unsuitable for the ever-increasing performance demands of today s applications. Finally, since objects are well-established as the in-memory data model for modern programs, the proponents claim that the only natural data model is one that transparently extends the in-memory model to permanent, shared, disk-based, multiuser storage. Opponents of object-oriented databases are just as adamant in their claims that object-oriented databases are unnecessary and offer no real, substantive advantages over the relational model. They claim that the handles of object-oriented databases are nothing more than the embedded database pointers of prerelational hierarchical and network databases, recycled with different names. They point out that, like these
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earlier database technologies, the object-oriented databases lack the strong underlying mathematical theory that forms the basis of relational databases. The lack of object database standards and the absence of a standardized query language like SQL are reflections of this deficiency, and have prevented the development of vendorindependent tools and applications that have been essential to the development of the database industry. In response to claims of inferior performance, they point to the use of relational technology in some of the most performance-demanding enterprise applications. They are also careful to draw a distinction between the external relational model of data and the underlying implementation, which may well contain embedded pointers for performance acceleration. Finally, they claim that any mismatch between objectoriented programming and relational databases can be addressed by technologies like JDBC and other object-to-relational interfaces.
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In the marketplace, pure object-oriented databases have gained some success in applications with very complex data models and those where the object-oriented model of classes and inheritance closely parallels the real world. However, the object database companies have had real difficulty breaking through into the mainstream. Many have not survived into the first decade of the twenty-first century. The survivors have had a hard time reaching the $100 million annual revenue mark, and achieving sustainable profits, and have experienced significant management changes. In contrast, the largest relational database vendors have continued to experience steady growth. The largest have annual revenues measured in billions of dollars per year, proving that relational database technology clearly continues to dominate the database market today. Not surprisingly, the object-oriented and relational camps have had a substantial impact on one another. With the slow marketplace acceptance of object-oriented technology, the object-oriented vendors have focused on some of the factors that created the success of the relational generation two decades ago. They have formed standards groups, such as the Object Data Management Group (ODMG), to standardize object-oriented database technology. Several have added relational adapters, with standard interfaces such as ODBC and SQL, as optional layers for relational access to their databases. Several have focused on the international standards process and have worked to put strong object-oriented capabilities into the SQL3 standard. The net result has been a trend toward embracing or coexisting with the relational world, rather than competing with it. The object-oriented challenge has had a significant impact on the relational mainstream as well. Several features that began as relational capabilities (for example, stored procedures) are now being touted as providing object-oriented advantages (for example, encapsulation). Vendors have also steadily added onto their relational databases selected object-oriented capabilities, such as abstract data types. The resulting object-relational databases provide a hybrid of relational and object capabilities. They
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