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or tens of thousands of transactions per minute on the TPC-C test. Enterprise-class UNIX-based SMP servers are delivering multiple tens of thousands of tpmC. The maximum results on typical commercially available systems (a multimillion-dollar 64-bit Alpha processor cluster) exceed 100,000 tpmC. The Transaction Processing Council has branched out beyond OLTP to develop benchmarks for other areas of database performance. The TPC-D benchmark focuses on data warehousing applications. The suite of tests that comprise TPC-D are based on a database schema typical of warehousing environments, and they include more complex data analysis queries, rather than the simple database operations more typical of OLTP environments. Interestingly, the TPC benchmarks specify that the size of the database must increase as the claimed number of transactions per minute goes up. A TPC benchmark result of 5000 tpmC may reflect results on a database of hundreds of megabytes of data, for example, while a result of 20,000 tpmC on the same benchmark may reflect a test on a multigigabyte database. This provision of the TPC benchmarks is designed to add more realism to the benchmark results since the size of database and computer system needed to support an application with demands in the 5000 tpm range is typically much smaller than the scale required to support an application with 20,000 tpm demands. In addition to raw performance, the TPC benchmarks also measure database price/ performance. The price used in the calculation is specified by the council as the five-year ownership cost of the database solution, including the purchase price of the computer system, the purchase price of the database software, five years of maintenance and support costs, and so on. The price/performance measure is expressed in dollar-per-TPC (e.g., Oracle on a Dell four-way server broke through the $500-per- TPC-C barrier ). While higher numbers are better for transactions-per-minute results, lower numbers are better for price/performance measures. Over the last several years, vendor emphasis on TPC benchmark results have waxed and waned. The existence of the TPC benchmarks, and the requirement that published TPC results be audited, have added a level of integrity and stability to benchmark claims. It appears that benchmarking and performance testing will be part of the database market environment for some time to come. In general, benchmark results can help with matching database and hardware configurations to the rough requirements of an application. On an absolute basis, small advantages in benchmark performance for one DBMS over another will probably be masked by other factors.
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The adoption of an official ANSI/ISO SQL standard was one of the major factors that secured SQL s place as the standard relational database language in the 1980s. Compliance with the ANSI/ISO standard has become a checkoff item for evaluating DBMS products, so each DBMS vendor claims that its product is compatible with or based on the ANSI/ISO standard. Through the late 1980s and early 1990s, all of the popular DBMS products evolved to conform to the parts of the standard that
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represented common usage. Other parts, such as the module language, were effectively ignored. This produced slow convergence around a core SQL language in popular DBMS products. As discussed in 3, the SQL1 standard was relatively weak, with many omissions and areas that are left as implementation choices. For several years, the standards committee worked on an expanded SQL2 standard that remedies these weaknesses and significantly extends the SQL language. Unlike the first SQL standard, which specified features that were already available in most SQL products, the SQL2 standard, when it was published in 1992, was an attempt to lead rather than follow the market. It specified features and functions that were not yet widely implemented in current DBMS products, such as scroll cursors, standardized system catalogs, much broader use of subqueries, and a new error message scheme. DBMS vendors are still in the process of evolving their products to support the full features of SQL2. In practice, proprietary extensions (such as enhanced support for multimedia data or stored procedures or object extensions) have often been more important to a DBMS vendor s success than higher levels of SQL2 compliance. The progress of the SQL standards groups continued, with work on a SQL3 standard begun even before the SQL2 standard was published. As delays set in and the number of different areas to be addressed by the next standard grew, the work on SQL3 was divided into separate, parallel efforts, focused on the core of the language, a Call-Level Interface (CLI), persistent stored modules (stored procedures), distributed transaction capabilities, time-based data, and so fourth. Some of these efforts were published a few years later as enhancements to the 1992 SQL2 standard. A SQL2-compatible CLI standard was released in 1995, as SQL-CLI. A year later, in 1996, a standardized stored procedure capability was released as SQL-PLM. In 1998, object language bindings for SQL were standardized in the SQL-OLB specification. A basic set of OLAP capabilities were published in a SQL-OLAP standard in 2000. While progress continued on these additions to the SQL2 standard, the work on the core language part of SQL3 (called the foundation part of the standard) focused on how to add object capabilities to SQL2. This quickly became a very controversial activity. Relational database theorists and purists took a strong stand against many of the proposed extensions. They claimed that the proposals confuse conceptual and architectural issues (e.g., adding substructure beyond the row/column tables) with implementation issues (e.g., performance issues of normalized databases and multitable joins). Proponents of the proposed SQL3 object extensions pointed to the popularity of object-oriented programming and development techniques, and insist that the rigid row/column structure of relational databases must be extended to embrace object concepts or it would be bypassed by the object revolution. Their argument was bolstered in the marketplace as the major relational DBMS vendors added object-oriented extensions to their products, to blunt the offensive from pure object-oriented databases, and were largely successful with this strategy. The controversy over the SQL3 work was finally resolved after a seven-year effort, with the publication of the SQL:1999 standard. (The term SQL3, which was used
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