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List the salespeople, their quotas, and their managers.
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SELECT NAME, QUOTA, MANAGER FROM SALESREPS NAME QUOTA MANAGER -------------- ------------ -------Bill Adams $350,000.00 104 Mary Jones $300,000.00 106 Sue Smith $350,000.00 108 Sam Clark $275,000.00 NULL Bob Smith $200,000.00 106 Dan Roberts $300,000.00 104 Tom Snyder NULL 101 Larry Fitch $350,000.00 106 Paul Cruz $275,000.00 104 Nancy Angelli $300,000.00 108
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The fact that a SQL query always produces a table of data is very important. It means that the query results can be stored back into the database as a table. It means that the results of two similar queries can be combined to form a larger table of query results. Finally, it means that the query results can themselves be the target of further queries. A relational database s tabular structure thus has a very synergistic relationship with the relational query facilities of SQL. Tables can be queried, and queries produce tables.
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Simple Queries
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The simplest SQL queries request columns of data from a single table in the database. For example, this query requests three columns from the OFFICES table: List the location, region, and sales of each sales office.
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SELECT CITY, REGION, SALES FROM OFFICES CITY -----------Denver New York Chicago Atlanta Los Angeles REGION SALES -------- -----------Western $186,042.00 Eastern $692,637.00 Eastern $735,042.00 Eastern $367,911.00 Western $835,915.00
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The SELECT statement for simple queries like this one includes only the two required clauses. The SELECT clause names the requested columns; the FROM clause names the table that contains them. Conceptually, SQL processes the query by going through the table named in the FROM clause, one row at a time, as shown in Figure 6-3. For each row, SQL takes the values of the columns requested in the select list and produces a single row of query results. The query results thus contain one row of data for each row in the table.
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Calculated Columns
RETRIEVING DATA
In addition to columns whose values come directly from the database, a SQL query can include calculated columns whose values are calculated from the stored data values. To request a calculated column, you specify a SQL expression in the select list. As discussed in 5, SQL expressions can involve addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. You can also use parentheses to build more complex expressions. Of course the columns referenced in an arithmetic expression must have a numeric type. If you try to add, subtract, multiply, or divide columns containing text data, SQL will report an error. This query shows a simple calculated column.
Figure 6-3.
Simple query processing (no WHERE clause)
SQL: The Complete Reference
List the city, region, and amount over/under target for each office.
SELECT CITY, REGION, (SALES - TARGET) FROM OFFICES CITY -----------Denver New York Chicago Atlanta Los Angeles REGION (SALES-TARGET) -------- --------------Western -$113,958.00 Eastern $117,637.00 Eastern -$64,958.00 Eastern $17,911.00 Western $110,915.00
To process the query, SQL goes through the offices, generating one row of query results for each row of the OFFICES table, as shown in Figure 6-4. The first two columns of query results come directly from the OFFICES table. The third column of query results is calculated, row by row, using the data values from the current row of the OFFICES table. Here are other examples of queries that use calculated columns:
Figure 6-4.
Query processing with a calculated column
6:
Simple Queries
Show the value of the inventory for each product.
SELECT MFR_ID, PRODUCT_ID, DESCRIPTION, (QTY_ON_HAND * PRICE) FROM PRODUCTS MFR_ID ------REI ACI QSA BIC IMM ACI ACI BIC PRODUCT_ID ----------2A45C 4100Y XK47 41672 779C 41003 41004 41003 DESCRIPTION (QTY_ON_HAND*PRICE) --------------- -------------------Ratchet Link $16,590.00 Widget Remover $68,750.00 Reducer $13,490.00 Plate $0.00 900-lb Brace $16,875.00 Size 3 Widget $22,149.00 Size 4 Widget $16,263.00 Handle $1,956.00
RETRIEVING DATA
Show me the result if I raised each salesperson s quota by 3 percent of their year-to-date sales.
SELECT NAME, QUOTA, (QUOTA + (.03*SALES)) FROM SALESREPS NAME QUOTA (QUOTA+(.03*SALES)) -------------- ------------ -------------------Bill Adams $350,000.00 $361,037.33 Mary Jones $300,000.00 $311,781.75 Sue Smith $350,000.00 $364,221.50 Sam Clark $275,000.00 $283,997.36 Bob Smith $200,000.00 $204,277.82 Dan Roberts $300,000.00 $309,170.19 Tom Snyder NULL NULL Larry Fitch $350,000.00 $360,855.95 Paul Cruz $275,000.00 $283,603.25 Nancy Angelli $300,000.00 $305,581.26
As mentioned in 5, many SQL products provide additional arithmetic operations, character string operations, and built-in functions that can be used in SQL expressions. These can appear in select list expressions, as in the next DB2 example.
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