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Range test (BETWEEN) syntax diagram
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SQL: The Complete Reference
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The BETWEEN test includes the endpoints of the range, so orders placed on October 1 or December 31 are included in the query results. Here is another example of a range test: Find the orders that fall into various amount ranges.
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SELECT ORDER_NUM, AMOUNT FROM ORDERS WHERE AMOUNT BETWEEN 20000.00 AND 29999.99 ORDER_NUM AMOUNT ---------- ----------113036 $22,500.00 112987 $27,500.00 113042 $22,500.00 SELECT ORDER_NUM, AMOUNT FROM ORDERS WHERE AMOUNT BETWEEN 30000.00 AND 39999.99 ORDER_NUM AMOUNT ---------- ----------112961 $31,500.00 113069 $31,350.00 SELECT ORDER_NUM, AMOUNT FROM ORDERS WHERE AMOUNT BETWEEN 40000.00 AND 49999.99 ORDER_NUM AMOUNT ---------- ----------113045 $45,000.00
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The negated version of the range test (NOT BETWEEN) checks for values that fall outside the range, as in this example: List salespeople whose sales are not between 80 percent and 120 percent of quota.
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SELECT NAME, SALES, QUOTA FROM SALESREPS WHERE SALES NOT BETWEEN (.8 * QUOTA) AND (1.2 * QUOTA)
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Simple Queries
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NAME SALES QUOTA -------------- ------------ -----------Mary Jones $392,725.00 $300,000.00 Sue Smith $474,050.00 $350,000.00 Bob Smith $142,594.00 $200,000.00 Nancy Angelli $186,042.00 $300,000.00
The test expression specified in the BETWEEN test can be any valid SQL expression, but in practice, it s usually just a column name, as in the previous examples. The ANSI/ISO standard defines relatively complex rules for the handling of NULL values in the BETWEEN test: I If the test expression produces a NULL value, or if both expressions defining the range produce NULL values, then the BETWEEN test returns a NULL result. I If the expression defining the lower end of the range produces a NULL value, then the BETWEEN test returns FALSE if the test value is greater than the upper bound, and NULL otherwise. I If the expression defining the upper end of the range produces a NULL value, then the BETWEEN test returns FALSE if the test value is less than the lower bound, and NULL otherwise. Before relying on this behavior, it s a good idea to experiment with your DBMS. It s worth noting that the BETWEEN test doesn t really add to the expressive power of SQL, because it can be expressed as two comparison tests. The range test:
A BETWEEN B AND C
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is completely equivalent to:
(A >= B) AND (A < = C)
However, the BETWEEN test is a simpler way to express a search condition when you re thinking of it in terms of a range of values.
SQL: The Complete Reference
The Set Membership Test (IN)
Another common search condition is the set membership test (IN), shown in Figure 6-9. It tests whether a data value matches one of a list of target values. Here are several queries that use the set membership test: List the salespeople who work in New York, Atlanta, or Denver.
SELECT NAME, QUOTA, SALES FROM SALESREPS WHERE REP_OFFICE IN (11, 13, 22) NAME QUOTA SALES -------------- ------------ -----------Bill Adams $350,000.00 $367,911.00 Mary Jones $300,000.00 $392,725.00 Sam Clark $275,000.00 $299,912.00 Nancy Angelli $300,000.00 $186,042.00
Find all orders placed on a Thursday in January 1990.
SELECT ORDER_NUM, ORDER_DATE, AMOUNT FROM ORDERS WHERE ORDER_DATE IN ('04-JAN-90', '11-JAN-90', '18-JAN-90', '25-JAN-90') ORDER_NUM ---------113012 113003 ORDER_DATE AMOUNT ----------- ---------11-JAN-90 $3,745.00 25-JAN-90 $5,625.00
Find all orders placed with four specific salespeople.
SELECT ORDER_NUM, REP, AMOUNT FROM ORDERS WHERE REP IN (107, 109, 101, 103) ORDER_NUM REP AMOUNT ---------- ---- ----------112968 101 $3,978.00
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113058 112997 113062 113069 112975 113055 113003 113057 113042
109 107 107 107 103 101 109 103 101
$1,480.00 $652.00 $2,430.00 $31,350.00 $2,100.00 $150.00 $5,625.00 $600.00 $22,500.00 RETRIEVING DATA
You can check whether the data value does not match any of the target values by using the NOT IN form of the set membership test. The test expression in an IN test can be any SQL expression, but it s usually just a column name, as in the preceding examples. If the test expression produces a NULL value, the IN test returns NULL. All of the items in the list of target values must have the same data type, and that type must be comparable to the data type of the test expression. Like the BETWEEN test, the IN test doesn t add to the expressive power of SQL, because the search condition:
X IN (A, B, C)
is completely equivalent to:
(X = A) OR (X = B) OR (X = C)
However, the IN test offers a much more efficient way of expressing the search condition, especially if the set contains more than a few values. The ANSI/ISO SQL standard doesn t specify a maximum limit to the number of items that can appear in the value list, and most commercial implementations do not state an explicit upper
Figure 6-9.
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