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SELECT FROM WHERE GROUP EMPL_NUM, NAME, SUM(AMOUNT) ORDERS, SALESREPS REP = EMPL_NUM BY EMPL_NUM
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Error: "NAME" not a GROUP BY expression
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Given the nature of the data, the query makes perfectly good sense because grouping on the salesperson s employee number is in effect the same as grouping on the salesperson s name. More precisely, EMPL_NUM, the grouping column, is the primary key of the SALESREPS table, so the NAME column must be single-valued for each group. Nonetheless, SQL reports an error because the NAME column is not explicitly specified as a grouping column. To correct the problem, you simply include the NAME column as a second (redundant) grouping column: Calculate the total orders for each salesperson.
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SELECT FROM WHERE GROUP EMPL_NUM, NAME, SUM(AMOUNT) ORDERS, SALESREPS REP = EMPL_NUM BY EMPL_NUM, NAME NAME SUM(AMOUNT) -------------- -----------Dan Roberts $26,628.00 Sue Smith $22,776.00 Paul Cruz $2,700.00 Bill Adams $39,327.00 Sam Clark $32,958.00
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Of course, if the salesperson s employee number is not needed in the query results, you can eliminate it entirely from the select list, giving: Calculate the total orders for each salesperson.
SELECT FROM WHERE GROUP NAME, SUM(AMOUNT) ORDERS, SALESREPS REP = EMPL_NUM BY NAME RETRIEVING DATA
NAME SUM(AMOUNT) -------------- -----------Bill Adams $39,327.00 Dan Roberts $26,628.00 Larry Fitch $58,633.00 Mary Jones $7,105.00 Nancy Angelli $34,432.00 Paul Cruz $2,700.00 Sam Clark $32,958.00 Sue Smith $22,776.00 Tom Snyder $23,132.00
NULL Values in Grouping Columns
A NULL value poses a special problem when it occurs in a grouping column. If the value of the column is unknown, into which group should the row be placed In the WHERE clause, when two different NULL values are compared, the result is NULL (not TRUE), that is, the two NULL values are not considered to be equal. Applying the same convention to the GROUP BY clause would force SQL to place each row with a NULL grouping column into a separate group by itself. In practice, this rule proves too unwieldy. Instead, the ANSI/ISO SQL standard considers two NULL values to be equal for purposes of the GROUP BY clause. If two rows have NULLs in the same grouping columns and identical values in all of their non-NULL grouping columns, they are grouped together into the same row group. The
SQL: The Complete Reference
small sample table in Figure 8-4 illustrates the ANSI/ISO handling of NULL values by the GROUP BY clause, as shown in this query:
SELECT HAIR, EYES, COUNT(*) FROM PEOPLE GROUP BY HAIR, EYES HAIR -----Brown NULL NULL Brown Brown Brown EYES COUNT(*) ------ --------Blue 1 Blue 2 NULL 2 NULL 3 Brown 2 Brown 2
Although this behavior of NULLs in grouping columns is clearly specified in the ANSI/ISO standard, it is not implemented in all SQL dialects. It s a good idea to build a small test table and check the behavior of your DBMS brand before counting on a specific behavior.
Figure 8-4.
The PEOPLE table
8:
Summary Queries
Group Search Conditions (HAVING Clause)
Just as the WHERE clause can be used to select and reject the individual rows that participate in a query, the HAVING clause can be used to select and reject row groups. The format of the HAVING clause parallels that of the WHERE clause, consisting of the keyword HAVING followed by a search condition. The HAVING clause thus specifies a search condition for groups. An example provides the best way to understand the role of the HAVING clause. Consider this query:
RETRIEVING DATA
What is the average order size for each salesperson whose orders total more than $30,000
SELECT FROM GROUP HAVING REP, AVG(AMOUNT) ORDERS BY REP SUM(AMOUNT) > 30000.00
REP AVG(AMOUNT) ---- -----------105 $7,865.40 106 $16,479.00 107 $11,477.33 108 $8,376.14
Figure 8-5 shows graphically how SQL carries out the query. The GROUP BY clause first arranges the orders into groups by salesperson. The HAVING clause then eliminates any group where the total of the orders in the group does not exceed $30,000. Finally, the SELECT clause calculates the average order size for each of the remaining groups and generates the query results. The search conditions you can specify in the HAVING clause are the same ones used in the WHERE clause, as described in s 6 and 9. Here is another example of the use of a group search condition: For each office with two or more people, compute the total quota and total sales for all salespeople who work in the office.
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