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Inserting a single row
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Insert a new customer and order for Mr. Jacobsen.
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INSERT INTO CUSTOMERS (COMPANY, CUST_NUM, CREDIT_LIMIT, CUST_REP) VALUES ('InterCorp', 2126, 15000.00, 111) 1 row inserted. INSERT INTO ORDERS (AMOUNT, MFR, PRODUCT, QTY, ORDER_DATE, ORDER_NUM, CUST, REP) VALUES (2340.00, 'ACI', '41004', 20, CURRENT_DATE, 113069, 2126, 111) 1 row inserted.
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As this example shows, the INSERT statement can become lengthy if there are many columns of data, but its format is still very straightforward. The second INSERT statement uses the system constant CURRENT DATE in its VALUES clause, causing the current date to be inserted as the order date. This system constant is specified in the SQL2 standard and is supported by many of the popular SQL products. Other brands of DBMS provide other system constants or built-in functions to obtain the current date and time. You can use the INSERT statement with interactive SQL to add rows to a table that grows very rarely, such as the OFFICES table. In practice, however, data about a new customer, order, or salesperson is almost always added to a database through a formsoriented data entry program. When the data entry is complete, the application program inserts the new row of data using programmatic SQL. Regardless of whether interactive or programmatic SQL is used, however, the INSERT statement is the same. The table name specified in the INSERT statement is normally an unqualified table name, specifying a table that you own. To insert data into a table owned by another user, you can specify a qualified table name. Of course, you must also have permission to insert data into the table, or the INSERT statement will fail. The SQL security scheme and permissions are described in 15. The purpose of the column list in the INSERT statement is to match the data values in the VALUES clause with the columns that are to receive them. The list of values and the list of columns must both contain the same number of items, and the data type of each value must be compatible with the data type of the corresponding column, or an error will occur. The ANSI/ISO standard mandates unqualified column names in the column list, but many implementations allow qualified names. Of course, there can be no ambiguity in the column names anyway, because they must all reference columns of the target table.
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When SQL inserts a new row of data into a table, it automatically assigns a NULL value to any column whose name is missing from the column list in the INSERT statement. In this INSERT statement, which added Mr. Jacobsen to the SALESREPS table, the QUOTA and MANAGER columns were omitted:
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INSERT INTO SALESREPS (NAME, AGE, EMPL_NUM, SALES, TITLE, HIRE_DATE, REP_OFFICE) VALUES ('Henry Jacobsen', 36, 111, 0.00, 'Sales Mgr', '25-JUL-90', 13)
As a result, the newly added row has a NULL value in the QUOTA and MANAGER columns, as shown in Figure 10-2. You can make the assignment of a NULL value more explicit by including these columns in the column list and specifying the keyword NULL in the values list. This INSERT statement has exactly the same effect as the previous one:
10:
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INSERT INTO SALESREPS (NAME, AGE, EMPL_NUM, SALES, QUOTA, TITLE, MANAGER, HIRE_DATE, REP_OFFICE) VALUES ('Henry Jacobsen', 36, 111, 0.00, NULL, 'Sales Mgr', NULL, '25-JUL-90', 13)
Inserting All Columns
As a convenience, SQL allows you to omit the column list from the INSERT statement. When the column list is omitted, SQL automatically generates a column list consisting of all columns of the table, in left-to-right sequence. This is the same column sequence generated by SQL when you use a SELECT * query. Using this shortcut, the previous INSERT statement could be rewritten equivalently as:
INSERT INTO SALESREPS VALUES (111, 'Henry Jacobsen', 36, 13, 'Sales Mgr', '25-JUL-90', NULL, NULL, 0.00)
When you omit the column list, the NULL keyword must be used in the values list to explicitly assign NULL values to columns, as shown in the example. In addition, the sequence of data values must correspond exactly to the sequence of columns in the table. Omitting the column list is convenient in interactive SQL because it reduces the length of the INSERT statement you must type. For programmatic SQL, the column list should always be specified because it makes the program easier to read and understand. In addition, table structures often change over time to include new columns or drop columns that are no longer used. A program that contains an INSERT statement without an explicit column list may work correctly for months or years, and then suddenly begin producing errors if the number of columns or data types of columns is changed by a database administrator.
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