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One of the reasons the STAMP 2 is so powerful is that it can communicate with the outside world through a serial port. There are many peripherals that will communicate with the
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Figure 2-9 STAMP 2 transistor inverted output.
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PS2501 Optoisolator Figure 2-10 STAMP 2 optoisolator inverted output.
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STAMP 2 through serial communication. This serial capability allows the STAMP 2 to communicate with personal computers, PDAs (personal data assistants), and other microprocessors as well as one-wire sensors, memory devices, keyboards, LCD displays, and display controllers. The STAMP can be set up to communicate through any of its 16 I/O pins by the serial protocol. Serial communication is the process of transmitting and receiving one data bit at a time. Serial communication is formally known as asynchronous serial commu-
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nication, and it sends data without a separate synchronizing signal to help the receiver distinguish one bit from the next. In order to overcome this lack of synchronization, the asynchronous serial protocol applies strict rules for timing and organizing bits. The basic principle of serial communication is to send multiple bits over a single wire. Each bit is placed on the wire for a specific amount of time. The serial protocol has a number of parameters that must be followed in order for it to work correctly. A typical serial setting might read 2400 N-8-1. The 2400 is the baud rate. Data bits are sent at a precise speed and expressed in bits per second (bps) or baud rate. It interesting to note that the bit rate is the reciprocal of the bit time or bit period or the amount of time allotted to each bit. A 2400-bps rate allows each bit 1/2400 second, or 416.67 microseconds ( s). This timing rate has to very precise for the serial link to work! In the serial setting, you will also notice an N or no-parity bit. A parity bit is an additional bit added that is compared or checked to count either an odd or an even number of data bits so that the system can ensure that the transmitted number of bits will be equal to the received number of bits. No parity means no extra bit is used for checking. Next you see the number 8. The number 8 is used to note the number of data bits that will be sent. Finally, you will see the number 1 or 0, and this last parameter is the number of stop bits used. A stop bit is the pause between the last data bit and next start bit. Generally stop bits are either 1 or 2 bits. The STAMP 2 supports 1 stop bit only. Serial signals can be in either of two states, which traditionally are called mark and space. In conventional RS-232 systems a mark is a negative voltage, i.e., 10 V and a , space is a positive voltage at 10 V When no data is being sent, the signals line idles in . the mark state, also known as the stop bit condition. In starting a transmission, the sender switches to the start bit condition, a space, which holds the signal line in that state for 1 bit time. After the start bit come the data bits. A mark is represented by a 1 or minus ( ) and a space is represented by a 0 or plus ( ). The use of opposite start and stop bits is the key to asynchronous communication. The receiver must identify each incoming bit by its precise time of arrival. It bases its reckoning of time on the exact instant of the signal s transition from the stop to start bit state. This allows it to reset its timing with each new arrival of data, so that small timing errors can t accumulate over many frames to become big timing errors.
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