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JOURNAL BEARINGS 19.7
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A foil journal bearing (Fig. 19.3l) consists of a very thin compliant bearing surface resting atop a series of corrugations.When it is compared to a conventional gas bearing, the foil bearing has a thicker film, higher load capacity, lower power loss, better stability, and superior endurance to high operating temperatures.
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19.2.2 Journal Shapes Although the journal is generally assumed to be perfectly circular, wear effects or poor manufacture can lead to journals with the shapes shown in Fig. 19.4a, b, and c. In addition, the possibility of developing pressure by grooving the surface of the journal has been investigated. Three grooved patterns that were found to yield good stability characteristics are shown in Fig. 19.4c, d, and e.
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FIGURE 19.4 Journal shapes. (a) Hourglass; (b) barrel; (c) tapered; (d) herringbone; (e) partly grooved symmetrical pattern: (f) partly grooved asymmetrical pattern. (Parts (d), (e), and (f) are from [19.1].)
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19.3 BEARING MATERIALS AND SELECTION CRITERIA
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19.3.1 Bearing Materials The ideal journal bearing material would have the following characteristics: 1. High compressive strength to withstand the applied radial loading 2. High fatigue strength to endure any cyclic changes in load direction and/or load intensity 3. Compatibility with the journal material to minimize surface scoring and bearing seizure whenever the journal and bearing surfaces come into contact (e.g., during startup) 4. Embedability to permit foreign particles in the lubricant to penetrate the bearing surface to avoid scoring and wear
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5. Conformability of surface to tolerate journal misalignment, deflection, or manufacturing inaccuracies 6. High corrosion resistance to withstand chemical attack by the lubricant 7. High thermal conductivity to permit generated heat to be transported from the lubricant film 8. Appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion to avoid differences in thermal expansion of the journal and bearing 9. Low wear to prevent surface destruction, especially under boundary lubrication conditions (i.e., thin-film high-friction lubrication), and thereby lengthen the life of the bearing Besides all these, the material should be inexpensive, highly available, and easily machined. To be sure, no single material has been developed that satisfactorily combines all characteristics of the ideal bearing material. In fact, some of the characteristics are contradictory. For example, soft bearing materials generally do not have sufficient strength. To strengthen soft bearing materials, they are frequently bonded to stronger backing materials. Bearing linings or overlays may be cast, electrodeposited, sprayed, or chemically applied, and they have thicknesses which range from 0.01 to 0.5 inch (in). Journal bearing materials may be broadly divided into two groups: metallics and nonmetallics. The metallic group includes aluminum alloys, babbitts (tin-, lead-, and aluminum-based), copper alloys (brass and bronze), zinc, and iron. The nonmetallic group includes plastics, carbon graphites, cemented carbides, and other proprietary materials. The nonmetallics have been widely used in self-lubrication applications because they can provide low friction and wear without the aid of a lubricant. Because of the wide diversity of materials available for use in journal bearings, it is difficult to provide comprehensive tables of all relevant properties. Manufacturers and materials suppliers are the best sources for that information. Nevertheless, some physical properties of a variety of journal bearing materials are presented in Table 19.2 [19.2]. Typical applications and useful comments concerning a number of journal bearing alloys are displayed in Table 19.3, while Table 19.4 contains a numerical ranking of the performance characteristics of these alloys. General information for a variety of self-lubricating materials is given in Table 19.5 [19.3]. Note that the table contains maximum values of the PV factor. This factor is the product of the bearing load per unit of projected area and the sliding velocity (i.e., speed in revolutions per minute times the bearing circumference). The PV parameter provides an indication of material wear and internal heat generation. Failure in self-lubricated bearings is frequently the direct result of internal overheating.
19.3.2 Bearing Material Selection Criteria Selection of a bearing material invariably requires a compromise based on particular characteristics regarded by the designer to be of principal importance to the application at hand. DeGee [19.4] has developed a systematic approach for selecting a material for lubricated journal bearings. In this method, certain component criteria are identified within major property groups. Table 19.6 gives one such listing. Not all the criteria presented in Table 19.6 need be considered. For example, in a particular application, environmental properties may be of no concern because the
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