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JOURNAL BEARINGS 19.46
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BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION
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FIGURE 19.20 Bearing stability for full journal bearing, L/D = 1.
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mon problem with high-speed rotor systems supported by this type of bearing. However, if the load is sufficiently large to have an eccentricity ratio on the order of 0.8, whirl problems are reduced (refer to Fig. 19.20). Ungrooved cylindrical gas bearings have been analyzed by Raimondi [19.11]. Performance characteristics were developed numerically and presented in the form of various design charts for L/D ratios of 1 2, 1, and 2. Figures 19.21 to 19.23 are a sampling of these charts for an L/D ratio of 1. A porous journal bearing is a plain cylindrical journal bearing with a porous liner that is fixed in the bearing housing (Fig. 19.24). An externally pressurized gas is supplied to the outer surface of the liner and flows through the porous material into the bearing clearance space. The steady performance of a self-acting porous gas bearing of finite length has been determined by Wu [19.12]. Table 19.19 shows a sample of these performance data. The data are applicable for a particular porous linear thickness ratio (0.083) and for particular combinations of the slip coefficient (dependent on the structure of the porous material), the permeability k (a physical property of the porous material), and bearing dimensions R and C. Example 6. For the following conditions D = 0.5 in L = 0.5 in C = 2 10 in
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N = 47 000 rev/min = 2.6 10 9 reyn (air at 80 F) pa = 40 psi W = 6.1 lbf
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FIGURE 19.21 Load ratio versus reduced bearing number of an ungrooved cylindrical gas bearing; L/D = 1. (From Raimondi [19.11].)
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FIGURE 19.22 Attitude angle versus reduced bearing number of an ungrooved cylindrical gas bearing; L/D = 1. (From Raimondi [19.11].)
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JOURNAL BEARINGS 19.48
BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION
FIGURE 19.23 Dimensionless journal frictional force versus reduced bearing number of an ungrooved cylindrical gas bearing; L/D = 1. (From Raimondi [19.11].)
FIGURE 19.24 Porous journal bearing.
compare the performance of a porous gas bearing to that of a solid wall bearing. The porous bearing material is ceramic 0.021 in thick with a permeability k = 1.33 10 12 in2 and a slip coefficient = 0.3. C/k 50, and Solution. Since L/D = 1, tp/R 0.083, data of Table 19.19 may be used. The bearing number is = 6 R pa C
12kR/C 3
0.5, the
= 3.0
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JOURNAL BEARINGS 19.49
JOURNAL BEARINGS
TABLE 19.19 Gas-Lubricated Bearing Performance Data, L/D = 1, tp/R = 0.083, = 0.5, = 50
The load ratio is P W/(LD) = = 0.61 pa pa Entering Table 19.18 with these values, we find = 0.6 = 37.598 R (f ) = 3.3003 C
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JOURNAL BEARINGS 19.50
BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION
For the same values we can find from Figs. 19.21 to 19.23 for the solid wall bearing = 0.54, = 33.7 , and FjC = 1.18 2 URL From the last value, we may compute for comparative purposes R (f ) = 3.038 C Thus the porous bearing operates at a larger eccentricity ratio (which indicates better stability) but has larger frictional loss. On the other hand, for a given , the porous bearing has a lower load capacity compared to the solid wall bearing. This loss of load capacity becomes more severe as the eccentricity ratio is increased.
19.7.4 Axially Grooved Gas Journal Bearings The addition of axial slots, or grooves, in the bearing surface can produce several positive effects. Feed grooves can reduce frictional heating and energy losses. The grooves, in effect, turn the surface into a number of partial arc bearings, which can reduce the tendency for half-frequency whirl instability. What is more, grooving a bearing leads to only a slight increase in the manufacturing costs. Although a variety of grooving arrangements can be envisioned, three or four equally spaced axial grooves are typically employed. Feed grooves of 30 to 60 extent are commonly used. However, bearing stability decreases with increase in the groove size. Castelli and Pirvics [19.13] presented tabular design data for axially grooved gas bearings. The subtended angle of each groove was taken to be 5 . Figures 19.25 and 19.26 are sample design chart data for a gas bearing with three grooves and an L/D ratio of 2.
FIGURE 19.25 Load ratio versus compressibility number for an axialgroove gas bearing, L/D = 2; three evenly spaced axial grooves first groove 60 clockwise from load line. (From Castelli and Pirvics [19.13].)
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