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The viscosity and boundary lubrication properties of the lubricant completely define the lubrication performance, but many other properties are important in service. Most of these other properties are related to progressive deterioration of the lubricant; these are described in Sec. 20.6.
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20.4 LUBRICANT VISCOSITY
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Viscosity of lubricants is defined in two different ways, and unfortunately both definitions are very widely used.
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20.4.1 Dynamic or Absolute Viscosity Dynamic or absolute viscosity is the ratio of the shear stress to the resultant shear rate when a fluid flows. In SI units it is measured in pascal-seconds or newtonseconds per square meter, but the centimeter-gram-second (cgs) unit, the centipoise, is more widely accepted, and 1 centipoise (cP) = 10 3 Pa s = 10 3 N s/m2 The centipoise is the unit of viscosity used in calculations based on the Reynolds equation and the various elastohydrodynamic lubrication equations.
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20.4.2 Kinematic Viscosity The kinematic viscosity is equal to the dynamic viscosity divided by the density. The SI unit is square meters per second, but the cgs unit, the centistoke, is more widely accepted, and 1 centistoke (cSt) = 1 mm2/s The centistoke is the unit most often quoted by lubricant suppliers and users. In practice, the difference between kinematic and dynamic viscosities is not often of major importance for lubricating oils, because their densities at operating temperatures usually lie between 0.8 and 1.2. However, for some fluorinated synthetic oils with high densities, and for gases, the difference can be very significant. The viscosities of most lubricating oils are between 10 and about 600 cSt at the operating temperature, with a median figure of about 90 cSt. Lower viscosities are more applicable for bearings than for gears, as well as where the loads are light, the speeds are high, or the system is fully enclosed. Conversely, higher viscosities are selected for gears and where the speeds are low, the loads are high, or the system is well ventilated. Some typical viscosity ranges at the operating temperatures are shown in Table 20.1. The variation of oil viscosity with temperature will be very important in some systems, where the operating temperature either varies over a wide range or is very different from the reference temperature for which the oil viscosity is quoted. The viscosity of any liquid decreases as the temperature increases, but the rate of decrease can vary considerably from one liquid to another. Figure 20.4 shows the
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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TABLE 20.1 Typical Operating Viscosity Ranges
change of viscosity with temperature for some typical lubricating oils. A graphical presentation of this type is the most useful way to show this information, but it is much more common to quote the viscosity index (VI). The viscosity index defines the viscosity-temperature relationship of an oil on an arbitrary scale in comparison with two standard oils. One of these standard oils has
FIGURE 20.4 Variation of viscosity with temperature.
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LUBRICATION 20.8
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a viscosity index of 0, representing the most rapid change of viscosity with temperature normally found with any mineral oil. The second standard oil has a viscosity index of 100, representing the lowest change of viscosity with temperature found with a mineral oil in the absence of relevant additives. The equation for the calculation of the viscosity index of an oil sample is VI = 100(L U) L H
where U = viscosity of sample in centistokes at 40 C, L = viscosity in centistokes at 40 C of oil of 0 VI having the same viscosity at 100 C as the test oil, and H = viscosity at 40 C of oil of 100 VI having the same viscosity at 100 C as the test oil. Some synthetic oils can have viscosity indices of well over 150 by the above definition, but the applicability of the definition at such high values is doubtful. The viscosity index of an oil can be increased by dissolving in it a quantity (sometimes as high as 20 percent) of a suitable polymer, called a viscosity index improver. The SAE viscosity rating scale is very widely used and is reproduced in Table 20.2. It is possible for an oil to satisfy more than one rating. A mineral oil of high viscosity index could meet the 20W and 30 criteria and would then be called a 20W/30 multigrade oil. More commonly, a VI improved oil could meet the 20W and 50 criteria and would then be called a 20W/50 multigrade oil. Note that the viscosity measurements used to establish SAE ratings are carried out at low shear rate. At high shear rate in a bearing, the effect of the polymer may
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