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TABLE 20.2 1977 Table of SAE Oil Ratings
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disappear, and a 20W/50 oil at very high shear rate may behave as a thinner oil than a 20W, namely, a 15W or even 10W. In practice, this may not be important, because in a high-speed bearing the viscosity will probably still produce adequate oil-film thickness. Theoretically the viscosity index is important only where significant temperature variations apply, but in fact there is a tendency to use only high-viscosity-index oils in the manufacture of high-quality lubricant. As a result, a high viscosity index is often considered a criterion of lubricant quality, even where viscosity index as such is of little or no importance. Before we leave the subject of lubricant viscosity, perhaps some obsolescent viscosity units should be mentioned. These are the Saybolt viscosity (SUS) in North America, the Redwood viscosity in the United Kingdom, and the Engler viscosity in continental Europe. All three are of little practical utility, but have been very widely used, and strenuous efforts have been made by standardizing organizations for many years to replace them entirely by kinematic viscosity.
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Boundary lubrication is important where there is significant solid-solid contact between sliding surfaces.To understand boundary lubrication, it is useful to first consider what happens when two metal surfaces slide against each other with no lubricant present. In an extreme case, where the metal surfaces are not contaminated by an oxide film or any other foreign substance, there will be a tendency for the surfaces to adhere to each other. This tendency will be very strong for some pairs of metals and weaker for others. A few guidelines for common metals are as follows: 1. Identical metals in contact have a strong tendency to adhere. 2. Softer metals have a stronger tendency to adhere than harder metals. 3. Nonmetallic alloying elements tend to reduce adhesion (e.g., carbon in cast iron). 4. Iron and its alloys have a low tendency to adhere to lead, silver, tin, cadmium, and copper and a high tendency to adhere to aluminum, zinc, titanium, and nickel. Real metal surfaces are usually contaminated, especially by films of their own oxides. Such contaminant films commonly reduce adhesion and thus reduce friction and wear. Oxide films are particularly good lubricants, except for titanium. Thus friction and wear can usually be reduced by deliberately generating suitable contaminant films on metallic surfaces. Where no liquid lubricant is present, such a process is a type of dry or solid lubrication. Where the film-forming process takes place in a liquid lubricant, it is called boundary lubrication. Boundary lubricating films can be produced in several ways, which differ in the severity of the film-forming process and in the effectiveness of the resulting film.The mildest film-forming process is adsorption, in which a layer one or more molecules thick is formed on a solid surface by purely physical attraction. Adsorbed films are effective in reducing friction and wear, provided that the resulting film is sufficiently thick. Figure 20.5 shows diagrammatically the way in which adsorption of a longchain alcohol generates a thick film on a metal surface even when the film is only one molecule thick.
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FIGURE 20.5 Representation of adsorption of a long-chain alcohol. (From Ref. [20.3].)
Mineral oils often contain small amounts of natural compounds which produce useful adsorbed films. These compounds include unsaturated hydrocarbons (olefines) and nonhydrocarbons containing oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms (known as asphaltenes). Vegetable oils and animal fats also produce strong adsorbed films and may be added in small concentrations to mineral oils for that reason. Other mild boundary additives include long-chain alcohols such as lauryl alcohol and esters such as ethyl stearate or ethyl oleate. Adsorbed boundary films are removed fairly easily, either mechanically or by increased temperature. A more resistant film is generated by chemisorption, in which a mild reaction takes place between the metal surface and a suitable compound. Typical chemisorbed compounds include aliphatic ( fatty ) acids, such as oleic and stearic acids. A chemisorbed film is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 20.6. Even more resistant films are produced by reaction with the metal surface. The reactive compounds usually contain phosphorus, sulfur, or chlorine and ultimately
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