codeproject vb.net barcode generator Advantages and Disadvantages of Grease Lubrication in Software

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TABLE 20.14 Advantages and Disadvantages of Grease Lubrication
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BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION
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2. Load For high loads, it may be advantageous to use EP additives or molybdenum disulfide. Because higher loads will lead to higher power consumption and therefore higher temperature, a stiffer grease such as no. 3 or a synthetic-base oil may help. 3. Size For large systems, use a stiffer grease, no. 3 or no. 4. For very small systems, use a softer grease, such as no. 1 or no. 0. 4. Temperature range The drop point should be higher than the maximum predicted operating temperature. For sustained operation at higher temperatures, a synthetic-base oil may be necessary. For very high temperatures, about 230 C, one of the very expensive fluorocarbon greases may be required. 5. Feed systems If the grease is to be supplied through a centralized system, usually it is desirable to use one grade softer than would otherwise be chosen (i.e., use a no. 0 instead of a no. 1 or a no. 00 instead of a no. 0). Occasionally a particular grease will be found unsuitable for a centralized feed because separation occurs and the lines become plugged with thickener, but this problem is now becoming less common.
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20.9 SOLID LUBRICANTS
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Any solid material can act as a solid lubricant provided that it shears readily and smoothly when interposed between sliding surfaces. Some of the wide range of solids which can be used are listed in Table 20.15.
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TABLE 20.15 Materials Used as Solid Lubricants
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LUBRICATION
There are many other desirable properties, including the following: 1. Ability to adhere to one or both of the bearing surfaces to ensure retention in the contact area 2. Chemical stability over the required temperature range in the particular environment 3. Sufficient resistance to wear 4. Nontoxicity 5. Easy application 6. Economy Most of the available materials are eliminated by these requirements, and in practice almost all solid lubrication in engineering is provided by three materials graphite, molybdenum disulfide, and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Solid lubricants can be used in several different forms, such as loose powder, adhering powder, bonded film, or solid block. In the form of a solid block, the material is often called a dry bearing material rather than a solid lubricant. 20.9.1 Graphite Graphite is probably the oldest known of the three main solid lubricants, and it has ceased to be the dominant one since about 1950. It is a grayish black crystalline form of carbon in which the atoms are arranged hexagonally in monatomic layers. The strong chemical bonds between the carbon atoms give strength to the layers, so that they resist bending or fracture and can carry useful loads. The bonds between the layers are relatively weak, and so the layers slide easily over each other and can be easily separated. When graphite is used as a lubricant, the crystals orient themselves so that the layers are parallel to the bearing surfaces. The layers then adhere fairly well to the bearing surfaces, but slide easily over each other to give low friction. The low shearing forces, and therefore the low friction, are not an inherent property of the graphite but are strongly influenced by the presence of moisture or certain other adsorbents. If graphite is used in a very dry atmosphere, the crystal layers have quite high interlayer bonding forces, and the friction and wear are high. The biggest advantage of graphite over molybdenum disulfide and PTFE is its electrical conductivity, and it is almost universally used as a component in electric brushes. Its coefficient of friction varies from 0.05 at high loads to 0.15 at low loads, and these low values are maintained to over 500 C in air. In block form, graphite has quite high structural integrity. It is commonly used in an impure form as graphitized carbon, in which the degree of crystallization can vary from 30 to over 80 percent of that of crystalline graphite. The frictional and structural properties and abrasiveness vary with the purity and degree of graphitization, and graphite technology is complex. Graphite can be used in block form, as free powder, or as a coating deposited from dispersion in a liquid. It adheres readily to many solid surfaces, but probably its strength of adhesion is generally lower than that of molybdenum disulfide. 20.9.2 Molybdenum Disulfide Molybdenum disulfide has also been known as a solid lubricant for centuries, but because it is similar in appearance, it has often been confused with graphite. Its use
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