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BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION
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20.10 GAS LUBRICATION
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Gases can be used to provide full-fluid-film lubrication in the same ways as liquids in hydrodynamic and externally pressurized bearings. The physical laws governing behavior are the same for both liquids and gases, but the very low viscosities of gases lead to considerable practical differences in their use, especially in self-pressurizing, or gas-dynamic, bearings: 1. Operating speeds are much higher to compensate for low viscosity. 2. Surface finish and precision must be better because of the much smaller lubricantfilm thickness. 3. Lubricant flow rate is higher for the same pressure differential. 4. Load-carrying capacity is generally low. As a result, gas bearings tend to be small, high-speed, and lightly loaded, with tight tolerances and high-quality surface finishes. The overall design and manufacturing cost is high, and they are mainly used in high-technology applications. Any gas or vapor can be used provided that it is chemically stable under the operating conditions and does not attack any of the system materials. If no chemical change takes place, there is no upper temperature limit to the use of a gas, and the viscosity increases as temperature increases. Air is the most common gas used in gas lubrication. Nitrogen or helium may be used where inertness is important. Otherwise, any gas which is available can be used, especially if it is available at high enough pressure for external pressurization. Some of the advantages of gas lubrication are high precision, very low friction, cleanliness, and ready availability of lubricant. The greatest potential advantage is the wide temperature range. In theory, it should be possible to design a gas bearing to operate from 250 to +2000 C. The corresponding disadvantages include the demanding design and construction requirements, the low load-carrying capacity, and the need for a very clean gas supply. Examples of important applications of gas bearings are dentists air-turbine drills, high-precision grinding spindles, and inertial gyroscopes.
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20.11 LUBRICANT FEED SYSTEMS
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In many lubricated components, no feed system is needed, because the initial lubricant fill is sufficient to last the required life. A feed system becomes necessary when the lubricant must be replaced or replenished, for one of the following reasons: 1. The temperature is too high, so that the lubricant must be removed and replaced by a fresh charge of cooler lubricant. 2. Lubricant becomes depleted by leakage or creepage and must be topped up. 3. Lubricant decomposes and must be replaced with a fresh charge. 4. Lubricant becomes contaminated and must be replaced with clean material. Where the rate of loss or deterioration is relatively low, it will be sufficient to provide a facility for occasional topping up by means of an oil can or a grease gun, provided that access to the lubricated component is available. Where this occasional manual topping up is not adequate, a lubricant feed system will be needed. It is
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beyond the scope of this chapter to describe the whole range and design of lubricant feed systems available. It is only possible to give a brief description of the main types and the factors involved in selecting them.
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20.11.1 Internal Circulation One obvious way to reduce oil temperature, slow down the increase in contamination, and increase the life is simply to increase the quantity of oil supplied in the initial fill. This requires an increase in the volume of space available for oil or, in other words, the creation of an oil reservoir or sump adjacent to the lubricated bearings or gears. Circulation of the oil can be ensured by arranging for the moving parts to dip below the surface of the oil. But they should not be completely submerged because the resulting viscous drag and churning of the oil lead to excessive power consumption and heating. For slow-moving components this problem is not serious, but for high speeds the depth of immersion is critical, and the following guidelines are useful: 1. Gears should be immersed to twice the tooth height. In a vertical train, the oil level should be just below the shaft of the lowest gear. 2. Rolling bearings should be immersed to halfway up to the lowest rollers or balls. 3. Crankshafts should be immersed so that the oil level is just above the big-end bearings at their lowest point. 4. The oil level should be higher for slow operation than for higher-speed systems. Oil is carried by the partly submerged components to contacting surfaces and is also spread by splashing. Where transfer by these two mechanisms is inadequate, the oil feed can be improved by the use of rings or disks, as shown in Fig. 20.7. Both operate by providing a larger surface with higher peripheral speed to transfer the oil, but they do not cause excessive viscous drag because they are both uniform in shape. Disks have an advantage over rings in that they can be designed to propel oil axially as well as radially, and this is particularly useful for bearing lubrication. Usually plain bearings cannot be adequately lubricated by partial immersion in oil unless the oil flow is augmented by a ring or a disk. If a weir is incorporated, part of the splashed oil can be trapped and directed to critical locations.
FIGURE 20.7 Ring and disk lubrication. (a) Disk; (b) ring. (From Ref. [20.1].)
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