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BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION
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FIGURE 21.1 Seal rings. (a) O-ring; (b) rectangular-section ring.
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TABLE 21.1 Standard Sizes of O-Rings
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TABLE 21.2 Standard Sizes of Rectangular-Section Rings
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FIGURE 21.2 Shape of groove for seal rings.
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reduced with the smoother finish, but surfaces smoother than 5 in (0.13 m) may not be satisfactory for reciprocating motion. A static seal ring application in which the joint is subject to internal pressure only is shown in Fig. 21.3a. The groove design in Fig. 21.3b is for a joint subject to external pressure or internal vacuum only. It is generally advisable in these applications to use as large a seal ring cross section as possible because the tolerance on the groove depth is greater with larger cross sections. This requires less precise machining and tends to reduce manufacturing costs. O-rings are also used as static seals for hydraulic tube fittings that are screwed into tapped holes. Recommended machining dimensions are provided in SAE J514 (July 2001). Elastomeric sealing rings are most commonly made of nitrile (Buna N) compounds. These compounds are low in cost and are compatible with alcohol, gasoline, hydraulic fluids, lubricating oils, and water. They also are suitable for temperatures ranging from 67 to 257 F ( 55 to 125 C). For resistance to higher temperatures or compatibility with other fluids, other compounds are employed. Among these compounds are butyl, ethylene propylene, neoprene, fluorocarbon, silicone, and polyurethane.
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SEALS 21.4
BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION
FIGURE 21.3 Static O-ring seals. (a) Joint subject to internal pressure only; (b) joint subject to external pressure.
21.2 SEALS FOR ROTARY MOTION
Seals are required on rotating shafts to retain working fluids, to retain lubricants, and to exclude dirt. The selection of a seal type depends on fluid pressure, shaft speed, and whether any leakage can be permitted. There are many variations of the basic seal types that are available from various manufacturers.
21.2.1 O-Rings Attempts to use O-rings as seals for rotating shafts have not always been successful because the elastomers shrink when heated. If an O-ring is under tension, friction between the ring and the shaft generates heat that makes the ring shrink. Contraction of the ring creates additional heat, and failure occurs rapidly. O-rings have been used successfully on rotating shafts when they are installed under compression by using a smaller-than-normal groove diameter in the housing. Satisfactory life can then be obtained at shaft speeds up to 750 feet per minute (ft/min) [3.8 meters per second (m/s)] and sealed pressures up to 200 psi (1.38 N/mm2). Recommended O-ring cross sections are 0.139 in (3.53 mm) for speeds up to 400 ft/min (2.0 m/s), 0.103 in (2.62 mm) for speeds from 400 to 600 ft/min (2.0 to 3.0 m/s), and 0.070 in (1.78 mm) for speeds exceeding 600 ft/min (3.0 m/s) [21.1].
21.2.2 Radial Lip Seals A section through a radial lip seal is shown in Fig. 21.4.This type is used primarily for retention of lubricants and exclusion of dirt. It is suited for conditions of low lubricant pressure, moderate shaft speeds, less-than-severe environmental conditions,
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SEALS 21.5
SEALS
and situations where slight leakage may be permitted. Radial lip seals are compact, effective, inexpensive, and easily installed. The outer case is held in the bearing housing by an interference fit. The garter spring provides a uniform radial force to maintain contact between the elastomeric sealing lips and the shaft. Lubricant leakage is reduced when hydrodynamic sealing lips are used. Such lips have very shallow grooves molded into the primary sealing lip to pump lubricant out of the contact area. Hydrodynamic sealing lips are manufactured for rotation in one direction only or for rotation in either direction. Sealing lips are most commonly made of nitrile (Buna N) rubber compounds because of their compatibility with greases, lubricating oils, and hydraulic fluids. The nitrile compounds have poor to fair compatibility with extreme-pressure (EP) additives used in some gear lubricants. A polyacrylate or fluoroelastomer compound is a better choice with EP lubricants. Radial lip seal terminology is presented in SAE J111 (October 2002), and recommendations for applications are made in SAE J946 (October 2002). One of the purposes of the secondary sealing lip shown in Fig. 21.4 is to exclude dust. That lip, however, leads to higher seal temperatures because of the additional friction, and the higher temperatures lead to earlier seal failure. Dual lip seals are not recommended for shaft speeds exceeding 150 ft/min (0.76 m/s) [21.2]. A minimum hardness of Rockwell C 30 is recommended for the portions of shafts that contact the sealing lips in order to prevent scoring of the shaft. If the shaft may be damaged in handling, a minimum hardness of Rockwell C 45 will provide protection against damage. A hard surface can be provided for soft shafts by use of a hardened wear sleeve of thin steel that is held in place by an interference fit. Radial lip seals function best with carbon-, alloy-, or stainless-steel shafts or nickel-plated surfaces. Use with aluminum alloys, brass, bronze, magnesium, zinc, or similar metals is not recommended. Shaft surface texture should be in the range of 10 to 20 in (0.25 to 0.50 m). This condition can best be met by plunge grinding. This type of seal is limited to sealing pressures of 3 psig (0.02 N/mm2 gauge) at shaft speeds exceeding 2000 ft/min (10.2 m/s) and 7 psig (0.05 N/mm2 gauge) at speeds up to 1000 ft/min (5.1 m/s). When pressures exceed these limits, a mechanical face seal is preferable.
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