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Recommendations on the combination of clearance and pressure for which backup rings are required vary to some extent among the various O-ring suppliers. Figure 21.12 provides one such recommendation [21.4]. In this figure, if the combination of fluid pressure and maximum gap falls to the right of a hardness curve, backup rings are required. If a piston or rod can be forced to one side of the bore, the maximum gap is the difference between the two diameters. If, however, the radial position of the piston or rod is restrained, as by bearings, the radial clearance is the maximum gap. Both the compression of the O-ring cross section to effect a seal and fluid pressure acting on the seal cause friction forces that oppose reciprocating motion. Information for estimating friction factors is provided in Fig. 21.13 [21.4]. The friction factor due to compression of the cross section can be obtained from Fig. 21.13a. The seal compression is expressed as a percentage of the O-ring cross section. The friction factor is multiplied by the circumference of the surface where relative motion occurs to obtain the friction force. For a piston, the circumference of the cylinder bore is used; for a piston rod, the rod circumference applies. The friction factor for pressure differential across the O-ring is obtained from Fig. 21.13b. That factor is multiplied by the projected area of the O-ring to obtain the friction force. For an O-ring in a piston, the projected area is the product of the diameter of the ring cross section and the circumference of the cylinder bore. The total estimated friction force is the sum of the friction forces due to compression and fluid pressure.
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FIGURE 21.12 Extrusion limits for O-rings. (From Ref. [21.4].)
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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FIGURE 21.13 O-ring friction factors due to (a) compression of the cross section and (b) fluid pressure. (From Ref. [21.4].)
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The finish of rubbing surfaces should be 8 to 16 in (0.2 to 0.4 m) for O-rings with a hardness of 70 Shore A. For rougher surfaces, a higher O-ring hardness should be used to ensure reasonable life. O-rings may be damaged if they are forced over sharp corners during assembly. The addition of chamfers to corners is an inexpensive method of reducing damage. Serious damage to O-rings occurs if they are forced to pass over a hole in a cylinder wall while under pressure. If this occurs, the O-ring expands into the hole and must later be forced back into the groove.This action tends to shear pieces off the ring and thus destroy its ability to seal. 21.3.2 Lip Packings Cup packings, U-seals, V-ring packings, and other forms of lip packings are used primarily to seal reciprocating motion. The packing material is usually leather, solid rubber, or fabric-reinforced rubber, although other compounds are available for difficult applications. An advantage of leather packings is a low coefficient of friction, on the order of 0.006 to 0.008 depending on the tanning process. Low friction increases the life of a packing because less heat is generated. Cup packings (Fig. 21.14) were one of the first types of piston seals for hydraulic and pneumatic applications. The fluid pressure expands the cup outward against the cylinder wall and thus seals the piston in the cylinder. This action requires that a double-acting cylinder have two packings in order to seal the pressure in both directions of operation. The inner portion of the piston in Fig. 21.14 is a boss to prevent excessive tightening of the washer against the cup. If the cup is crushed against the piston, good sealing will not be obtained. Figure 21.15 shows elastomeric U-seals on a double-acting piston. This type of seal is also used on piston rods. They have approximately the same pressure limitations as O-rings, and backup rings are required for higher pressures. When a U-seal is made of leather, a filler is required between the lips to prevent collapse of the seal.
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