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BOLTED AND RIVETED JOINTS 22.6
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FASTENING, JOINING, AND CONNECTING
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the axes of the fasteners) and continuing with tension joints in which the loads are applied more or less parallel to the axes of fasteners. As we shall see, the design procedures for shear joints and tension joints are quite different.
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22.1 SHEAR LOADING OF JOINTS
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Now let us look at joints loaded in shear. I am much indebted, for the discussion of shear joints, to Shigley, Fisher, Higdon, and their coauthors ([22.1], [22.2], [22.3]).
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22.1.1 Types of Shear Joints Shear joints are found almost exclusively in structural steel work. Such joints can be assembled with either rivets or bolts. Rivets used to be the only choice, but since the early 1950s, bolts have steadily gained in popularity. Two basic types of joint are used, lap and butt, each of which is illustrated in Fig. 22.1. These are further defined as being either (1) friction-type joints, where the fasteners create a significant clamping force on the joint and the resulting friction between joint members prevents joint slip, or (2) bearing-type joints, where the fasteners, in effect, act as points to prevent slip.
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FIGURE 22.1 Joints loaded in shear. (a) Lap joint; (b) butt joint.
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Only bolts can be used in friction-type joints, because only bolts can be counted on to develop the high clamping forces required to produce the necessary frictional resistance to slip. Rivets or bolts can be used in bearing-type joints.
22.1.2 Allowable-Stress Design Procedure In the allowable-stress design procedure, all fasteners in the joint are assumed to see an equal share of the applied loads. Empirical means have been used to determine the maximum working stresses which can be allowed in the fasteners and joint members under these assumptions. A typical allowable shear stress might be 20 percent of the ultimate shear strength of the material. A factor of safety (in this case 5:1) has been incorporated into the selection of allowable stress. We should note in passing that the fasteners in a shear joint do not, in fact, all see equal loads, especially if the joint is a long one containing many rows of fasteners. But the equal-load assumption greatly simplifies the joint-design procedure, and if the assumption is used in conjunction with the allowable stresses (with their built-in factors of safety) derived under the same assumption, it is a perfectly safe procedure. Bearing-type Joints. To design a successful bearing-type joint, the designer must size the parts so that the fasteners will not shear, the joint plates will not fail in tension nor be deformed by bearing stresses, and the fasteners will not tear loose from the plates. None of these things will happen if the allowable stresses are not exceeded in the fasteners or in the joint plates. Table 22.1 lists typical allowable stresses specified for various rivet, bolt, and joint materials. This table is for reference only. It is always best to refer to current engineering specifications when selecting an allowable stress for a particular application. Here is how the designer determines whether or not the stresses in the proposed joint are within these limits. Stresses within the Fasteners. The shear stress within a rivet is = F bmAr (22.1)
The shear stress within each bolt in the joint will be = F AT (22.2)
A bolt can have different cross-sectional areas. If the plane passes through the unthreaded body of the bolt, the area is simply AB = d2 4 (22.3)
If the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the bolt, the crosssectional area is considered to be the tensile-stress area of the threads and can be found for Unified [22.4] or metric [22.5] threads from
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