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BOLTED AND RIVETED JOINTS 22.12
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FASTENING, JOINING, AND CONNECTING
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FIGURE 22.5 Tearout. The pieces torn from the margin of the plate can be wedge-shaped as well as rectilinear, as shown here.
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where F = 100 kip (445 kN) H = 2 in (50.8 mm) t = 3 4 in (19.1 mm) Friction-type Joints. Now let us design a friction-type joint using the same dimensions, materials, and bolt pattern as in Fig. 22.1, but this time preloading the bolts high enough so that the friction forces between joint members (between the socalled faying surfaces) become high enough to prevent slip under the design load. Computing Slip Resistance. To compute the slip resistance of the joint under a shear load, we use the following expression (from Ref. [22.6], p. 72): RS = S FPA bm (22.5)
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Typical slip coefficients are tabulated in Table 22.2. Note that engineering specifications published by the AISC and others carefully define and limit the joint surface conditions that are permitted for structural steel work involving friction-type joints. The designer cannot arbitrarily paint such surfaces, for example; if they are painted, they must be painted with an approved material. In most cases they are not painted. Nor can such surfaces be polished or lubricated, since these treatments would alter the slip coefficient. A few of the surface conditions permitted under current specifications are listed in Table 22.2. Further conditions and coating materials are under investigation. To continue our example, let us assume that the joint surfaces will be grit blasted before use, resulting in an anticipated slip coefficient of 0.493. Now we must estimate the average preload in the bolts. Let us assume that we have created an average preload of 17 kip in each of the five bolts in our joint. We can now compute the slip resistance as RS = SFPAbm = 0.493 (17 000)(2)(5) = 83 810 lb (373 kN) Comparing Slip Resistance to Strength in Bearing. The ultimate strength of a friction-type joint is considered to be the lower of its slip resistance or bearing strength. To compute the bearing strength, we use the same equations we used earlier. This time, however, we enter the allowable shear stress for each material and
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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TABLE 22.2 Slip Coefficients
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then compute the force which would produce that stress. These forces are computed separately for the fasteners, the net section of the plates, the fasteners bearing against the plates, and tearout. The least of these forces is then compared to the slip resistance to determine the ultimate design strength of the joint. If you do this for our example, you will find that the shear strength of the bolts determines the ultimate strength of this joint.
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22.2 ECCENTRIC LOADS ON SHEAR JOINTS
22.2.1 Definition of an Eccentric Load If the resultant of the external load on a joint passes through the centroid of the bolt pattern, such a joint is called an axial shear joint. Under these conditions, all the fasteners in the joint can be assumed to see an equal shear load. If the resultant of the applied load passes through some point other than the centroid of the bolt group, as in Fig. 22.6, there will be a net moment on the bolt pattern. Each of the bolts will help the joint resist this moment.A joint loaded this way is said to be under an eccentric shear load.
22.2.2 Determine the Centroid of the Bolt Group To locate the centroid of the bolt group, we arbitrarily position xy reference axes near the joint, as shown in Fig. 22.7. We then use the following equations to locate the centroid within the group (Ref. [22.1], p. 360):
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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