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BOLTED AND RIVETED JOINTS 22.23
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BOLTED AND RIVETED JOINTS
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with a yield strength of 40 kpsi (276 MPa), we would find that a bolt force of 27.6 kip (122 kN) would yield the joint. We take the lesser of the joint or bolt yield loads, 18.8 103 lb (83.6 kN) as the yield load of the system. Next, since we are planning to tighten these fasteners by applying torque to the nuts, we subtract 10 percent from the yield strength of the fastener to allow for the torsional stresses which will be developed in the fastener as it is tightened. If we were planning to use a high-pressure lubricant on the threads, we might subtract only 2 to 4 percent for torsion. Since no lube will be used in our example, we subtract 10 percent, making the upper limit 16.9 103 lb (75.2 kN). This will remain our upper limit unless the fasteners will also be subjected to shear stress; or unless code limits, stress corrosion problems, or the desire for a safety factor forces us to reduce it further. We will assume, in our example, that they do not. Before continuing, however, let us see what we would have to do if the bolts did see a combined tension and shear load.This might happen, for example, in a bearingtype joint in which we planned to preload (tension) the bolts to a significant percentage of yield.There are other types of joint, of course, which are subjected to both tensile and shear loads in use. Any shear load on the bolt will use up part of the strength of the bolt, leaving less capacity for tensile loads (Ref. [22.6], p. 226). Under these conditions, the maximum acceptable tensile stress in a bolt can be determined using any of the static failure theories of Chap. 28. Here, we select the equation S
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(22.14)
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where S = the ratio of the shear strength to the tensile strength (typically 0.6) for bolt steels. Equation (22.14) is a form of the maximum-shear-stress theory. Acceptable Lower Limit for the Clamping Force on the Joint. When we are computing the maximum acceptable forces, we focus on the joint, because its behavior can be seriously affected if the interface forces become too small. The joint, for example, might leak, it might vibrate loose, or it might have a short fatigue life. To determine the lower acceptable limit, we must consider each potential failure mode separately, estimate the minimum preload required to control that particular problem, and then select the highest of these several minimum requirements to establish the minimum for the system. This is one of the more difficult steps of our procedure. In fact, we may be able to determine the acceptable minimum preload only by making fatigue or vibration tests or the like. (We will consider fatigue problems at length in Sec. 22.5.) There are some rules of thumb, however, which we can apply. If our joint is a friction-type shear joint, or if it will be subjected to transverse vibration, we want a minimum preload which will prevent joint slip under the maximum anticipated shear load. This load is FC (min) FX S (22.15)
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If we are dealing with a foundation bolt or something where it is only necessary to avoid separation of the joint members, the minimum acceptable preload can be zero. If we are dealing with a gasketed joint, we will have to worry about the minimum acceptable gasket pressure required to keep that gasket from leaking.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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