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BOLTED AND RIVETED JOINTS 22.31
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BOLTED AND RIVETED JOINTS
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detect the effects of elastic interactions, for example, and therefore to compensate for such interactions. You can measure residual loads days or even years after initial tightening, which is never possible with torque and/or turn means. Ultrasonics can be used with any sort of wrench, as well as with tensioners or heaters, to tighten fasteners.
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22.4 BOLT TORQUE REQUIREMENTS
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22.4.1 The Problem Although torque is the most common way to tighten a fastener, it is not a very good way, usually, to control the preload developed within the fastener.As we saw in Table 23.4, we must expect to see a scatter of 30 percent or worse in the preload we achieve if we are using torque tools to tighten the fasteners.This scatter is acceptable in most applications, however.We compensate for it by overdesign, using larger bolts than might otherwise be necessary, for example. Many factors affect this scatter in preload. These include such things as the finish on nuts, bolts, and joint members; the age, temperature, quantity, condition, and type of the lubricants used, if any; the speed with which the fasteners are tightened; the fit between male and female threads; the size of the holes and their perpendicularity with respect to joint surfaces; and the hardness of all parts. There is no way in which we can control or predict all the variables in a given situation, and so we must always expect and accept a considerable scatter in preload results when we use torque to control the tightening operation. 22.4.2 Selecting the Correct Torque Having said all this, we must still select an appropriate torque to produce, or attempt to produce, the target preload we have established for our design. Our best bet is to use the so-called short-form torque equation to make an estimate. This equation is T = KdFPT (22.21)
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The nut factor K is an experimental constant, a bugger factor, if you will, which defines the relationship which exists between applied torque and achieved preload in a given situation. The only way to determine what K should be in your application is to make some actual experiments in which you measure both torque and preload and compute the mean K and the scatter in K. If accuracy is not a big concern or you are merely trying to select the proper size of wrench or determine the approximate preloads you will achieve, then it is safe to use a nut factor listed in Table 22.5.
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22.5 FATIGUE LOADING OF BOLTED AND RIVETED JOINTS
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When a bolt or joint member suddenly and unexpectedly breaks, it has probably failed because of fatigue. This is certainly one of the most common modes of failure for bolted joints. The designer, therefore, should learn how to cope with it.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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BOLTED AND RIVETED JOINTS 22.32
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FASTENING, JOINING, AND CONNECTING
TABLE 22.5 Nut Factors
22.5.1 Spotting a Fatigue Problem It is usually easy to diagnose a fatigue failure. Here are the clues: 1. Cyclic Loads Fatigue failures always occur under cyclic tension loads. 2. No Advance Warning Fatigue failure is always sudden and almost always unexpected. The parts do not neck-down or wear out before they fail. 3. Appearance of the Break Surface If you examine the surface of a part which has failed in fatigue, you will usually find that a section of the surface is smooth, sometimes almost polished. Another portion of the surface, surrounding the first, may be a little rougher but is still basically smooth. The remainder of the surface will be very rough indeed. 4. Typical Failure Points The parts tend to fail at points of high stress concentration. Figures 22.15 and 22.16 show the most common failure points. 22.5.2 Estimating Fatigue Life Many factors affect the fatigue life of any machine part, including fasteners. Such things as shape, heat treatment, surface finish, the mean load stress, the magnitude of
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