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BOLTED AND RIVETED JOINTS 22.33
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load excursions, and the material all play a role. If you know the basic strength of the part, however, you can use the methods of Chap. 29 to estimate fatigue strength or endurance limit. Table 22.6 gives you the strength information you will need to do this for fasteners. You will find other information pertinent to the fatigue of joint members in Chaps. 32 and 29. The term proof strength in Table 22.6 deserves explanation. It is common to test the strength of fasteners by applying tension loads to them.The proof load of a given fastener is the highest tensile force which can be applied to it without causing a permanent set to the fastener. The proof strength can then be determined by dividing the proof load by the tensile-stress area of the threads [Eq. (22.4)].
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FIGURE 22.15 Typical failure points of a bolt. (a) Failure at head fillet; (b) failure at thread runout; (c) failure at first thread to engage the nut.
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FIGURE 22.16 Typical fatigue failures in joints loaded in shear. (a) Failure occurs in the gross cross section, near the place where the splice plates and joint plates meet, in a friction-type joint; (b) failure occurs in a net cross section, through a line of bolts, in a bearing-type joint.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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22.34 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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TABLE 22.6 Specifications and Identification Markings for Bolts, Screws, Studs, Sems,a and U Boltsb
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22.35 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
BOLTED AND RIVETED JOINTS 22.36
FASTENING, JOINING, AND CONNECTING
22.5.3 Reducing Fatigue Problems There are a lot of things you can do to minimize fatigue problems. Material and Part Selection and Care. Materials with higher tensile strengths tend to have better fatigue lives than those with lower tensile strengths, at least up to an ultimate tensile strength of 200 kpsi (1379 MPa) or so. It also helps to select a material having low-notch sensitivity. Avoid decarburization of the parts. Decarburization can weaken part surfaces and make it much easier for initial cracks to form. Make sure that nut faces and the undersurface of the bolt head are perpendicular to the axis of the bolt threads and that the holes are perpendicular to the surfaces of the joints [22.10]. Two degrees of angularity can reduce fatigue life to only 25 percent of normal. Lubricate the threads [22.10]. If nothing else, this can reduce corrosion problems, and corrosion is a main source of initial cracks. If using fasteners with a tensile strength above 150 kpsi (1034 MPa), do not use lubricants containing sulfides, since these can contribute to stress-corrosion cracking, which will accelerate fatigue failure [22.11]. Grit blast the surfaces of joints loaded in shear before assembling because anything which increases the slip resistance improves fatigue life ([22.2], p. 120). Prevent Crack Initiation. Polish, but do not hard coat, bolt surfaces, or shot peen the surfaces, or roll bolt threads after heat treatment. Do anything and everything possible to avoid corrosion of bolts or joint members (see Chap. 35). Reduce Load Excursions. Even if the magnitude of external loads imposed on a joint are beyond the designer s control, there are many things which he or she can do to reduce the variations in load seen by a given joint. And these variations, or load excursions, are a key issue. We always want to keep the ratio between minimum load and maximum load seen by the parts as close to unity as possible. Some say the minimum bolt tension should always be more than half the maximum bolt tension. Others recommend a preload that is at least two to three times the magnitude of the worst-case external load to be applied to the joint. Because of the large number of variables involved, such rules will apply only to certain applications. Nevertheless, they give you an idea of the importance of minimizing load excursions. It helps to increase the ratio between the stiffness of the joint and the stiffness of the bolt (kJ/kB) so that the joint will absorb a larger percentage of the applied load excursions. There are many ways to do this. For examples, see Fig. 22.17a and b. Reducing the body of the bolt to nine-tenths of the nominal diameter is sometimes recommended. It helps to compensate for initial preload loss and relaxation effects by retightening the bolts after they have relaxed. By the same token, try to avoid vibration loss of preload by providing damping and/or by periodic retightening of the nuts and/or by using special vibration-resistant fasteners. Reduce Stresses in Parts. Make sure there are at least three threads above and below the faces of the nut (Fig. 22.17c). Do not let the thread run-out point coincide with the shear plane of the joint (Fig. 22.17d). Roll the threads instead of cutting
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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