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exceeding that resulting from localized yielding must be inherent in the design. The metal can be corrugated, or a composite design consisting of asbestos could be used to gain the conformability required. In very-high-pressure applications, flat gaskets may not have adequate recovery to seal as the hydrostatic end force unseats the gaskets [25.6]. In these cases, various types of self-energized metal seals are available. These seals utilize the internal pressure to achieve high-pressure sealing. They require careful machining of the flanges and have some fatigue restrictions. In applications where increased surface conformity is necessary and lower temperatures are encountered, asbestos and/or other nonmetallic materials can be used under the limitations noted earlier. Elastomeric inserts are used in some fluid passages where conformity with sealing surfaces and permeability are major problems and high fluid pressures are encountered. Since the inserts have low spring rates, they must be designed to have appropriate contact areas and restraint in order to effect high unit sealing stresses for withstanding the internal pressures. The inserts also have high degrees of recovery, which allow them to follow high thermal distortions normally associated in the mating flanges. Compression set and heat-aging characteristics must also be considered when elastomeric inserts are used.
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25.5.2 Creep and Relaxation After the initial sealing stress is applied to a gasket, it is necessary to maintain a sufficient sealing stress for the designed life of the unit or equipment. All materials exhibit, in varying degrees, a decrease in applied stress as a function of time, commonly referred to as stress relaxation. The reduction of stress on a gasket is actually a combination of two major factors: stress relaxation and creep (compression drift). By definition, Stress relaxation is a reduction in stress on a specimen under constant strain (d /dt; e = constant). Creep (compression drift) is a change in strain of a specimen under constant stress (de/dt; = constant). In a gasketed joint, stress is applied by tension in a bolt or stud and transmitted as a compressive force to the gasket. After loading, stress relaxation and creep occur in the gasket, causing corresponding lower strain and tension in the bolt. This process continues indefinitely as a function of time. The change in tension of a bolt is related to the often quoted torque loss associated with a gasket application. Since the change in stress is due to two primary factors, a more accurate description of the phenomenon would be creep relaxation, from now on called relaxation. Bolt elongation, or stretch, is linearly proportional to bolt length. The longer the bolt, the higher the elongation. The higher the elongation, the lower the percentage loss for a given relaxation. Therefore, the bolts should be made as long as possible for best torque retention. Relaxation in a gasket material may be measured by applying a load on a specimen by means of a strain-gauged bolt-nut-platen arrangement as standardized by ASTM F38-62T. Selection of materials with good relaxation properties will result in the highest retained torque for the application. This results in the highest remaining stress on the gasket, which is desirable for long-term sealing.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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FIGURE 25.5 Relaxation versus stress on a gasket: A, 0.030 in 0.035 in thick; B, 0.042 in 0.047 in thick; C, 0.062 in 0.065 in thick.
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The amount of relaxation increases as thickness is increased for a given gasket material. This is another reason why the thinnest gasket that will work should be selected. Figure 25.5 depicts the relaxation characteristics as a function of thickness for a particular gasket design. Note that as clamping stress is increased, relaxation is decreased.This is the result of more voids being eliminated as the stress level is increased.
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25.5.3 Effect of Geometry The gasket s shape factor has an important effect on its relaxation characteristics. This is particularly true in the case of soft packing materials. Much of the relaxation of a material may be attributed to the releasing of forces through lateral expansion. Therefore, the greater the area available for lateral expansion, the greater the relaxation. The shape factor of a gasket is the ratio of the area of one load face to the area free to bulge. For circular or annular samples, this may be expressed as Shape factor = where t = thickness of gasket OD = outside diameter ID = inside diameter 1 (OD ID) 4t (25.1)
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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