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FASTENING, JOINING, AND CONNECTING
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The second equation states that the required bolt operating load must be sufficient to contain the hydrostatic end force and simultaneously maintain adequate compression on the gasket to ensure sealing: Wm1 = 2 G P + 2b GmP 4 (25.3)
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where Wm1 = required bolt load for maximum operating or working conditions, lb Wm2 = required initial bolt load at atmospheric temperature conditions without internal pressure, lb G = diameter at location of gasket load reaction, generally defined as follows: When b0 1 4 in, G = mean diameter of gasket contact face, in; when b0 > 1 4 in, G = outside diameter of gasket contact face less 2b, in P = maximum allowable working pressure, psi b = effective gasket or joint-contact-surface seating width, in 2b = effective gasket or joint-contact-surface pressure width, in b0 = basic gasket seating width per Table 25.4 (the table defines b0 in terms of flange finish and type of gasket, usually from one-half to one-fourth gasket contact width) m = gasket factor per Table 25.3 (the table shows m for different types and thicknesses of gaskets ranging from 0.5 to 6.5) y = gasket or joint-contact-surface unit seating load, psi (per Table 25.3, which shows values from 0 to 26 000 psi) Tables 25.3 and 25.4 are reprints of Tables 2-5-1 and 2-5-2 of the 1980 ASME Code [25.10]. To determine bolt diameter based on required load and a specified torque for the grade of bolt, the following is used: Wb = 0.17DT or Wb = 0.2DT (for lubricated bolts) (for unlubricated bolts) (25.4) (25.5)
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where Wb = load per bolt, lb D = bolt diameter, in T = torque for grade of bolt selected, lb in Note that Wb is the load per bolt and must be multiplied by the number of bolts to obtain total bolt load. To determine the bolt diameter based on the required load and the allowable bolt stress for a given grade of bolt, use Wb = bAb where Wb = load per bolt, lb b = allowable bolt stress for grade of bolt selected, psi Ab = minimum cross-sectional area of bolt, in2 (25.6)
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25.7.3 Simplified Procedure A simpler method of calculation has been suggested by Whalen [25.11]. This method is also based on the seating stress g on the gasket, as shown in Table 25.5, and on the
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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GASKETS 25.15
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hydrostatic end force involved in the application. Basically, Whalen s equations accomplish the same thing as the Code, but they are simplified since they use the full gasket contact width, regardless of the flange width and the surface finish of the sealing faces. This method is based on the total bolt load Fb being sufficient to 1. Seat the gasket material into the flange surface 2. Prevent the hydrostatic end force from unseating the gasket to the point of leakage In the first case, Table 25.5 lists a range of seating-stress values. The ranges shown were found in a search of the literature on gasket seating stresses. Gasket suppliers can be contacted to confirm these values. Table 25.6 depicts various gasket types and comments on them. As a starting point in the design procedure, the mean value of g could be used. Then, depending on the severity of the application and/or the safety factor desired, the upper and lower figures could be utilized. Two equations are associated with this procedure. The first is Fb = gAg where Fb = total bolt load, lb g = gasket seating stress, psi (from Table 25.5) Ag = gasket contact area, in2 (25.7)
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This equation states that the total bolt load must be sufficient to seat the gasket when the hydrostatic end force is not a major factor. The second equation associated with the hydrostatic end force is Fb = KPtAm where (25.8)
Pt = test pressure or internal pressure if no test pressure is used Am = hydrostatic area on which internal pressure acts (normally based on gasket s middiameter) K = safety factor (from Table 25.7)
The safety factors K from Table 25.7 are based on the joint conditions and operating conditions but not on the gasket type or flange surface finish. They are similar to the m factors in the ASME Code. Equation (25.8) states that the total bolt load must be more than enough to overcome the hydrostatic end force. The middiameter is used in Am since testing has shown that just prior to leakage, the internal pressure acts up to the middiameter of the gasket. After the desired gasket has been selected, the minimum seating stress, as given in Table 25.5, is used to calculate the total bolt load required by Eq. (25.7). Then the bolt load required to ensure that the hydrostatic end force does not unseat the gasket is calculated from Eq. (25.8). The total bolt load Fb calculated by Eq. (25.7) must be greater than the bolt load calculated in Eq. (25.8). If it is not, then the gasket design must be changed, the gasket s area must be reduced, or the total bolt load must be increased. Both the ASME procedure and the simplified procedure are associated with gasketed joints which have rigid, usually cast-iron flanges, have high clamp loads, and generally contain high pressures. A great many gasketed joints have stamped-metal covers and splash or very low fluid pressure. In these cases, the procedures do not
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