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WELDED CONNECTIONS 26.2
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FASTENING, JOINING, AND CONNECTING
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current and sustains the arc, but also melts and supplies filler metal to the joint. If the electrode is a carbon or tungsten rod and the joint requires added metal for fill, that metal is supplied by a separately applied filler-metal rod or wire. Most welding in the manufacture of steel products where filler metal is required, however, is accomplished with the second type of electrode the type that supplies filler metal as well as providing the conductor for carrying electric current.
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26.2 BASIC WELDING CIRCUIT
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The basic arc-welding circuit is illustrated in Fig. 26.1. An ac or dc power source fitted with whatever controls may be needed is connected by a ground-work cable to the workpiece and by a hot cable to an electrode holder of some type, which makes electrical contact with the welding electrode. When the circuit is energized and the electrode tip is touched to the grounded workpiece and then withdrawn and held close to the spot of contact, an arc is created across the gap. The arc produces a temperature of about 6500 F at the tip of the electrode, a temperature more than adequate for melting most metals. The heat produced melts the base metal in the vicinity of the arc and any filler metal supplied by the electrode or by a separately introduced rod or wire. A common pool of molten metal is produced, called a crater. This crater solidifies behind the electrode as it is moved along the joint being welded. The result is a fusion bond and the metallurgical unification of the workpieces.
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FIGURE 26.1 The basic arc-welding circuit. (The Lincoln Electric Company.)
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Using the heat of an electric arc to join metals, however, requires more than the moving of the electrode with respect to the weld joint. Metals at high temperatures are chemically reactive with the main constituents of air oxygen and nitrogen. Should the metal in the molten pool come in contact with air, oxides and nitrides would be formed, which upon solidification of the molten pool would destroy the strength properties of the weld joint. For this reason, the various arc-welding processes provide some means for covering the arc and the molten pool with a protective shield of
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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gas, vapor, or slag. This is referred to as arc shielding, and such shielding may be accomplished by various techniques, such as the use of a vapor-generating covering on filler-metal-type electrodes, the covering of the arc and molten pool with a separately applied inert gas or a granular flux, or the use of materials within the cores of tubular electrodes that generate shielding vapors. Whatever the shielding method, the intent is to provide a blanket of gas, vapor, or slag that prevents or minimizes contact of the molten metal with air. The shielding method also affects the stability and other characteristics of the arc. When the shielding is produced by an electrode covering, by electrode core substances, or by separately applied granular flux, a fluxing or metal-improving function is usually also provided. Thus the core materials in a flux-core electrode may perform a deoxidizing function as well as a shielding function, and in submerged-arc welding, the granular flux applied to the joint ahead of the arc may add alloying elements to the molten pool as well as shielding it and the arc. Figure 26.2 illustrates the shielding of the welding arc and molten pool with a covered stick electrode the type of electrode used in most manual arc welding. The extruded covering on the filler metal rod, under the heat of the arc, generates a gaseous shield that prevents air from coming in contact with the molten metal. It also supplies ingredients that react with deleterious substances on the metals, such as oxides and salts, and ties these substances up chemically in a slag that, being lighter than the weld metal, rises to the top of the pool and crusts over the newly solidified metal. This slag, even after soldification, has a protective function: It minimizes contact of the very hot solidified metal with air until the temperature lowers to a point where reaction of the metal with air is lessened.
FIGURE 26.2 How the arc and molten pool are shielded by a gaseous blanket developed by the vaporization and chemical breakdown of the extruded covering on the electrode in stick-electrode welding. Fluxing material in the electrode covering reacts with unwanted substances in the molten pool, tying them up chemically and forming a slag that crusts over the hot solidified metal. The slag, in turn, protects the hot metal from reaction with the air while it is cooling. (The Lincoln Electric Company.)
While the main function of the arc is to supply heat, it has other functions that are important to the success of arc-welding processes. It can be adjusted or controlled to transfer molten metal from the electrode to the work, to remove surface films, and to bring about complex gas-slag-metal reactions and various metallurgical changes.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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