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ready to melt and less arc heat is required to melt it. Because of this, still higher welding speeds are possible.
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26.6 COMMERCIAL ARC-WELDING PROCESSES
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26.6.1 Shielded Metal-Arc Welding The shielded metal-arc process commonly called stick-electrode welding or manual welding is the most widely used of the various arc-welding processes. It is characterized by application versatility and flexibility and relative simplicity in equipment. It is the process used by the small welding shop, by the home mechanic, and by the farmer for repair of equipment; it is also a process having extensive application in industrial fabrication, structural steel erection, weldment manufacture, and other commercial metals joining. Arc welding, to persons only casually acquainted with welding, usually means shielded metal-arc welding. With this process, an electric arc is struck between the electrically grounded work and a 9- to 18-in length of covered metal rod the electrode. The electrode is clamped in an electrode holder, which is joined by a cable to the power source. The welder grips the insulated handle of the electrode holder and maneuvers the tip of the electrode with respect to the weld joint. When the welder touches the tip of the electrode against the work and then withdraws it to establish the arc, the welding circuit is completed. The heat of the arc melts base metal in the immediate area, the electrode s metal core, and any metal particles that may be in the electrode s covering. It also melts, vaporizes, or breaks down chemically nonmetallic substances incorporated in the covering for arc-shielding, metalprotection, or metal-conditioning purposes. The mixing of molten base metal and filler metal from the electrode provides the coalescence required to effect joining (see Fig. 26.2). As welding progresses, the covered rod becomes shorter and shorter. Finally, the welding must be stopped to remove the stub and replace it with a new electrode.This periodic changing of electrodes is one of the major disadvantages of the process in production welding. It decreases the operating factor, or the percent of the welder s time spent in the actual laying of weld beads. Another disadvantage of shielded metal-arc welding is the limitation placed on the current that can be used. High amperages, such as those used with semiautomatic guns or automatic welding heads, are impractical because of the long (and varying) length of electrode between the arc and the point of electric contact in the jaws of the electrode holder. The welding current is limited by the resistance heating of the electrode. The electrode temperature must not exceed the breakdown temperature of the covering. If the temperature is too high, the covering chemicals react with each other or with air and therefore do not function properly at the arc. The versatility of the process plus the simplicity of equipment is viewed by many users whose work would permit some degree of mechanized welding as overriding its inherent disadvantages. This point of view was formerly well taken, but now that semiautomatic self-shielded flux-cored arc welding has been developed to a similar (or even superior) degree of versatility and flexibility, there is less justification for adhering to stick-electrode welding in steel fabrication and erection wherever substantial amounts of weld metals must be placed.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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26.6.2 Self-Shielded Flux-Cored Welding The self-shielded flux-cored arc-welding process is an outgrowth of shielded metalarc welding. The versatility and maneuverability of stick electrodes in manual welding stimulated efforts to mechanize the shielded metal-arc process. The thought was that if some way could be found to put an electrode with self-shielding characteristics in coil form and to feed it mechanically to the arc, welding time lost in changing electrodes and the material lost as electrode stubs would be eliminated.The result of these efforts was the development of the semiautomatic and full-automatic processes for welding with continuous flux-cored tubular electrode wires. Such fabricated wires (Fig. 26.4) contain in their cores the ingredients for fluxing and deoxidizing molten metal and for generating shielding gases and vapors and slag coverings.
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FIGURE 26.4 Principles of the self-shielded flux-cored arc-welding process. The electrode may be viewed as an inside-out construction of the stick electrode used in shielded metal-arc welding. Putting the shield-generating materials inside the electrode allows the coiling of long, continuous lengths of electrode and gives an outside conductive sheath for carrying the welding current from a point close to the arc. (The Lincoln Electric Company.)
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In essence, semiautomatic welding with flux-cored electrodes is manual shielded metal-arc welding with an electrode many feet long instead of just a few inches long.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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