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FIGURE 26.18 Leg size of a fillet weld. (The Lincoln Electric Company.)
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26.8.2 Groove and Fillet Combinations A combination of a partial-penetration groove weld and a fillet weld (Fig. 26.19) is used for many joints. The AWS prequalified single-bevel groove T joint is reinforced with a fillet weld. The designer is frequently faced with the question of whether to use fillet or groove welds (Fig. 26.20). Here cost becomes a major consideration. The fillet welds in Fig. 26.20a are easy to apply and require no special plate preparation. They can be made using large-diameter electrodes with high welding currents, and as a consequence, the deposition rate is high. The cost of the welds increases as the square of the leg size.
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FIGURE 26.19 Combined groove- and fillet-welded joints. (The Lincoln Electric Company.)
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FIGURE 26.20 Comparison of fillet welds and groove welds. (The Lincoln Electric Company.)
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FIGURE 26.21 Relative cost of welds having the full strength of the plate. (The Lincoln Electric Company.)
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In comparison, the double-bevel groove weld in Fig. 26.20b has about one-half the weld area of the fillet welds. However, it requires extra preparation and the use of smaller-diameter electrodes with lower welding currents to place the initial pass without burning through. As plate thickness increases, this initial low-deposition region becomes a less important factor and the higher cost factor decreases in significance. The construction of a curve based on the best possible determination of the actual cost of welding, cutting, and assembling, such as that illustrated in Fig. 26.21, is a possible technique for deciding at what point in plate thickness the double-bevel groove weld becomes less costly.The point of intersection of the fillet-weld curve with the groove-weld curve is the point of interest. The accuracy of this device is dependent on the accuracy of the cost data used in constructing the curves. Referring to Fig. 26.20c, it will be noted that the single-bevel groove weld requires about the same amount of weld metal as the fillet welds deposited in Fig. 26.20a. Thus there is no apparent economic advantage. There are some disadvantages, though. The single-bevel joint requires bevel preparation and initially a lower deposition rate at the root of the joint. From a design standpoint, however, it offers a direct transfer of force through the joint, which means that it is probably better under fatigue loading. Although the illustrated full-strength fillet weld, having leg
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FIGURE 26.22 In the flat position, a single-bevel groove joint is less expensive than fillet welds in making a T joint. (The Lincoln Electric Company.)
FIGURE 26.23 Partial-penetration double-bevel groove joint. (The Lincoln Electric Company.)
sizes equal to three-quarters the plate thickness, would be sufficient, some codes have lower allowable limits for welds, and many require a leg size equal to the plate thickness. In this case, the cost of the fillet-welded joint may exceed the cost of the single-bevel groove-welded joint in thicker plates. Also, if the joint is so positioned that the weld can be made in the flat position, a single-bevel groove weld would be less expensive than fillet welds. As can be seen in Fig. 26.22, one of the fillets would have to be made in the overhead position a costly operation. The partial-penetration double-bevel groove joint shown in Fig. 26.23 has been suggested as a full-strength weld. The plate is beveled to 60 degrees on both sides to give a penetration of at least 29 percent of the thickness of the plate (0.29t).After the groove is filled, it is reinforced with a fillet weld of equal cross-sectional area and shape. This partial-penetration double-bevel groove joint uses 57.8 percent of the weld metal used by the full-strength fillet weld. It requires joint preparation, but the 60-degree angle allows the use of large electrodes and high welding current. Full-strength welds are not always required in the design, and economies can often be achieved by using partial-strength welds where these are applicable and
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