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FIGURE 26.38 A bevel preparation with a backup strip may be more economical than a J or U groove. (The Lincoln Electric Company.)
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Without back-gouging, penetration is incomplete (Fig. 26.39a). Proper backchipping should be deep enough to expose sound weld metal, and the contour should permit the electrode complete accessibility (Fig. 26.39b).
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26.9 CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR WELDS
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Welds are designed and executed in accordance with codes, standards, and specifications intended to enhance the integrity of the product and its safe performance in use. Codes and specifications are generally written by industrial groups, trade or professional organizations, or government bureaus, and each code or specification deals with applications pertaining specifically to the interest of the authoring body. Large manufacturing organizations may prepare their own specifications to meet their specific needs. Among the major national organizations that write codes that involve arc welding are the American Welding Society (AWS), the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Among government agencies, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) has rules for the fabrication of over-the-road vehicles and for containers used in interstate commerce. The various branches of the military services also prepare specifi-
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FIGURE 26.39 (a) Without back-gouging, penetration is incomplete; (b) proper back-gouging should be deep enough to expose sound weld metal. (The Lincoln Electric Company.)
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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cations. Some specifications for example, those of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) actually are not standards, but are merely guides to recommended practices. Other specifications rigidly call out the design and fabrication procedures to be followed and are legally binding. In any event, neither the design nor the fabrication of a welded structure should be undertaken without full knowledge of all codes and requirements that must be met. Meeting the requirements of a code does not protect anyone against liability concerning the performance of the welds or structure. Nor, in general, does any codewriting body approve, endorse, guarantee, or in any way attest to the correctness of the procedures, designs, or materials selected for code application. The strength values permitted by governing codes are called allowables. Thus there are specified allowables for shear stress and unit force on various sizes of fillet welds, and there are fatigue allowables for various welds in reference to the geometry of the joint. Most weldments used in machinery are made in accordance with AWS and AISC specifications, with ASME and API rules applicable where pressure vessels and piping are involved.
26.9.1 Allowable Shear and Unit Forces The basic formula for allowable shear stress for weld metal in a fillet or partialpenetration bevel-groove weld has been established by the AWS and AISC as = 0.30St (26.1)
where St = minimum tensile strength. Table 26.9 shows the values for various weldmetal strength levels obtained by this formula and the more common fillet-weld sizes. These values are for equal-leg fillet welds where the effective throat te = 0.707 , where is the leg size. With Table 26.9 one can calculate the allowable unit force f per linear inch for a weld size made with a particular electrode type. For example, calculating the allowable unit force f per inch for a 1 2-in fillet weld made with an E70 electrode gives f = 0.707 = 0.707 (0.30St) = 0.707(1 2)(0.30)(70)(10)3 = 7420 lb per linear inch An AISC provision gives limited credit for penetration beyond the root of a fillet weld made with the submerged-arc process. Since penetration increases the effective throat thickness of the weld, as shown in Fig. 26.40, the provision permits an increase in this value when calculating weld strength. For fillet welds 3 8 in and smaller, the effective throat te is now equal to the leg size of the weld . Thus, te = 3 8 in (26.2)
For submerged-arc fillet welds larger than 3 8 in, the effective throat of the weld is obtained by adding 0.11 to 0.707 . Thus, te = 0.707 + 0.11 > 3 8 in (26.3)
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