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TABLE 26.9 Allowable Unit Load for Various Sizes of Fillet Welds
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FIGURE 26.40 The AISC gives credit for penetration beyond the root of fillets made with the submerged-arc process. (The Lincoln Electric Company.)
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where te is in inches. Note that allowance for penetration applies only to fillet welds made by the submerged-arc welding process. Electrode polarity will provide this penetration.
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26.9.2 Minimum Fillet-Weld Size The minimum sizes of fillet welds for specific material thicknesses are shown in Table 26.10. In the AISC Specifications and the AWS Structural Welding Code, this table has been expanded to include material less than 1 4 in thick and 1 8-in fillets. Where materials of different thicknesses are being joined, the minimum fillet weld size is governed by the thicker material, but this size does not have to exceed the thickness of the thinner material unless required by the calculated stress.
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TABLE 26.10 Minimum Fillet-Weld Size in Inches
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26.9.3 Allowables for Weld Metal A Handy Reference Table 26.11 summarizes the AWS Structural Welding Code and AISC allowables for weld metal. It is intended to provide a ready reference for picking the proper strength levels for the various types of steels. Once this selection has been made, the allowables can be quickly found for the various types of welds that may be required for the specific assembly.
26.9.4 AISC Fatigue Allowables The AISC Specifications include fatigue allowables, which also are accepted by the AWS Building Code, Sec. 8. Therefore, designers have something other than the AWS Building Code, Sec. 10, Bridges, with its automatic 10 percent lower allowable design stress, on which to base fatigue considerations. Although developed for structures, these allowables are adaptable to the fatigue problems of machine-tool makers, equipment manufacturers, and others who fabricate with welded steel. They cover a wide range of welded joints and members and not only provide values for various types of welds, but also take into consideration the strength of members attached by welds.
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The conventional method of handling fatigue is based on a maximum fatigue stress. The AISC-suggested method is based on the range of stress. Either may be used in design; they will give comparable values. The AISC method is generally quicker. Under the new approach, the allowables for members are designed M and for welds W. A tensile load is T, a compressive load C, a reversal R, and shear S. In the chart used for determining values for allowable range of stress (Fig. 26.41), there are four groups representing life. These are 1. 2. 3. 4. 20 000 to 100 000 cycles Over 100 000 to 500 000 cycles Over 500 000 to 2 000 000 cycles Over 2 000 000 cycles
And there are eight different categories representing type of joint and detail of member. The chart provides the allowable range in stress sr or sr, which value may be used in the conventional fatigue formulas. These formulas are max = where K= = min. stress min. force = max. stress max. force (26.5) sr 1 K or max = sr 1 K (26.4)
min. shear min. moment = max. moment max. shear
Of course, the maximum allowable fatigue value used should not exceed the allowable for steady loading. An alternative use of the allowable range of stress taken from the table is to divide it into the range of applied load.This will provide the required property of the section area or section modulus. The section, as determined, must additionally be large enough to support the total load (dead and live load) at steady allowable stresses. Reference to the chart of joint types and conditions and the table of allowable range of stress for the different categories (Fig. 26.41) will help make clear their use. Such reference also points up some of the new ideas introduced. One new concept is that the fatigue allowable of a member, for example, a welded plate girder as shown by (2) in the chart (Fig. 26.41), is now determined by the allowable of the plate when connected by the fillet welds parallel to the direction of the applied stress. M and W are equal, and the applicable category is B, rather than the allowable of plate without welds, category A. If stiffeners are used on the girder, as in (4), the fatigue allowable of the web or flange is determined by the allowable in the member at the termination of the weld or adjacent to the weld, category C or D, depending on the shear value in the web. The fatigue allowable of a flange plate at the termination of a cover plate, either square or tapered end, is represented by (5). The applicable category is E. The same category also applies to a plate or cover plate adjacent to the termination of an intermittent fillet weld, as in (6) and (39). Groove welds in butt joints of plate loaded transversely to the weld are shown in (8) to (14). In (15), the groove weld is parallel to the load. In (10), (13), (14), (15), and
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