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(3) the presence of a foreign atom at one of the lattice sites, or (4) atoms that are displaced from their normal positions in the array. Figure 32.10 illustrates these defects. The first type of point defect, the absence of an atom from a lattice point, is called a vacancy. Figure 32.10a shows a vacancy on the (100) planes of an FCC lattice. The sketch was not made to be a true representation in order to make the defect more apparent. In reality, the atoms that are near neighbors to the vacant site would be displaced from their normal positions in the array toward centers closer to the vacancy. Thus the lattice lines joining the centers of the atoms are not straight in the vicinity of the vacancy. In three dimensions this means that the crystallographic planes are warped inward near a vacancy. Individual vacancies can cluster together to form larger voids. Vacancies have no effect on the metallurgical control of the mechanical properties discussed in later sections. However, they do affect properties such as conductivity and diffusivity. The second type of point defect, the presence of an extra atom at the interstices of the lattice, is known as an interstitial defect. This type of defect in the lattice structure is the basis for the strengthening mechanism known as interstitial alloying, where the solute atom fits in the interstices of the solvent lattice, and it accounts for the high strength in fully hardened (heat-treated) steel. Commercially pure iron (ferrite with a BCC structure) has a yield strength of 70 to 140 MPa. However, with 0.8 percent carbon dissolved interstitially in the iron and stress relieved after heat treating, it has a yield strength of 2400 to 2800 MPa. No other metal has such high room-temperature strength, and no other strengthening mechanism has a greater effect than the interstitial alloying of carbon in iron. The details of these strengthening mechanisms are discussed later.
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FIGURE 32.10 Some common point defects. (a) Vacancy; (b) interstitial atom I; (c) substitution of a smaller atom S; (d) substitution of a larger atom S.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Figure 32.10b shows an interstitial atom I in the solvent matrix. However, it does not lie in the plane of the solvent lattice but lies either above or below the sketched plane. Also, the foreign atom is always larger than the void space it occupies, and so it necessarily forces the surrounding solvent atoms out of their normal array. Therefore, the crystallographic planes are warped outward in the vicinity of an interstitial defect. The third type of point defect, the presence of a foreign atom at one of the lattice points, is referred to as a substitutional defect. When an alloy is made by adding solute atoms that replace (substitute for) solvent atoms in the lattice structure, it is called a substitutional alloy. This type is the most common one in the metal system. Figure 32.10c and d shows the substitution of a smaller and a larger atom S at one of the lattice points. Unlike the interstitial atom, the substitutional one is in the plane of the solvent matrix. The crystallographic planes are also warped in the vicinity of the substitutional defect, inward for the smaller atom and outward for the larger atom. The distortion of the crystallographic planes is very important to an understanding of control of the strength of materials, which is presented later. The fourth type of point defect, atoms that are displaced from their normal position, occurs in several forms. The atoms in the contacting planes of two adjoining crystals are not in their normal positions as a result of the crystals having solidified from the liquid without being in perfect registry with each other. This is considered to be a grain boundary defect, which has a significant effect on the strength of all polycrystalline materials. Two additional types of atom displacement defects occur in ionic crystals that are not present in metallic-bonded crystals. A vacancy in an ionic crystal that is associated with a displaced pair, one cation and one anion, is called a Schottky defect. A Frenkel defect occurs when a small cation moves from a lattice point, leaving a vacancy, and occupies an interstitial site.
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32.4.2 Line Defects or Dislocations Examinations of crystals under the electron microscope have shown interruptions in the periodicity of the lattice structure in certain directions. In a two-dimensional representation these interruptions appear as lines; hence the name line defects. It is believed that a perfect crystal of a metal such as pure iron should have a strength of 1 or 2 million pounds force per square inch, whereas in reality such perfect crystals have a yield strength of only a few thousand. The reason given for the three orders of magnitude difference between the postulated and actual strength of metal crystals is the presence of these line defects. The two most common line defects are edge dislocation and screw dislocation. An edge dislocation is the line defect that results from the presence of an extra plane of atoms in one portion of a crystal compared to the adjacent part. Actually, it is the edge of this extra plane of atoms and runs from one end of the crystal to the other. When looking at the crystalline plane that is perpendicular to the dislocation line, the imperfection appears as an extra row of atoms in a part of the crystal. An edge dislocation is customarily represented by a symbol in which the vertical leg designates the extra plane of atoms. When the vertical leg is above the horizontal leg, the dislocation is considered positive. When the extra plane of atoms is in the bottom portion of the crystal, the vertical leg is placed below the horizontal one and the dislocation is said to be negative. The part of the crystal containing the extra plane of atoms is in compression, whereas that portion on the other side of the dislocation line is in tension. Since one dislocation line runs completely across a crystal, it deforms the lattice structure to a greater extent than does one point defect.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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