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FIGURE 32.12 Yield strength versus grain size (a) and percent cold work (b) for 70Cu-30Zn brass.
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tion of one grain intrudes into the space that was previously occupied by another grain, with a resulting distortion of the lattice in both grains. Figure 32.12b illustrates the effect of cold work on the yield strength of 70Cu30Zn brass. With only 10 percent cold work, the yield strength is raised by a factor of 3.5, and 60 percent cold work increases the strength nearly 8 times. In general, 10 percent cold work more than doubles the yield strength of most metals.
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32.6.4 Single-Phase Alloying Alloying (single- and multiple-phase) is the most important of the methods available to control or manipulate the mechanical properties of materials. The greatest increase in strength known today occurs when iron having a yield strength of 10 to 20 kpsi (70 to 140 MPa) is alloyed with less than 1.0 percent carbon to form a single phase (martensite) that has a yield strength of nearly 435 kpsi (3000 MPa). The lattice is distorted and dislocation movement is impeded when foreign (solute) atoms are added to the lattice structure of a pure material. Figure 32.10b through d illustrates this condition, which was discussed previously under the heading Point Defects. Vacancy defects, as shown in Fig. 32.10a, are not a practical strengthening method. The reason single-phase alloying has such a great effect on strength is that the entire lattice network is distorted, and uniformly, whereas in the other mechanism, there are regions in each crystal that are severely distorted and other regions that are hardly distorted at all. Figure 32.13a shows the effect on the strength of the material of adding a foreign element B or C to the lattice structure of element A. From this figure it is clear that not all elements have the same strengthening effect. In general, the further the ratio of diameters of solute to solvent atoms is from unity, the greater will be the strengthening effect. However, the further this ratio is from unity, as previously explained, the less soluble the two atoms are in each other s lattice.
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32.6.5 Multiple-Phase Alloying This mechanism is sometimes referred to as fine-particle strengthening. In a sense, multiple-phase alloying is a combination of single-phase alloying and grain-boundary
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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FIGURE 32.13 The effect of alloying on strength. (a) Single-phase alloying; atomic diameter ratio B/A > C/A; (b) multiple-phase alloying; p is a nonspherical-shaped particle, and d is the spherical particle diameter.
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strengthening.That is, some of the added element goes into solution in the solvent lattice and thus has a strengthening effect; the remainder of the added element forms a second phase (either another solid solution or a compound) that is present as small grains or crystals. Multiple-phase alloys can be made in three different ways. One method is by annealing. In this case, the alloy is heated to a one-phase region where the second element is completely soluble in the first. On slow cooling, the second phase precipitates as a massive network in the grain-boundary regions of the solvent matrix. This is the least beneficial form of alloying. The second method is similar except that the alloy is rapidly cooled from the high one-phase region so that a supersaturated solid phase occurs at room temperature. This material is then reheated to a relatively low temperature so that the second phase precipitates throughout the entire crystal as extremely fine particles rather than concentrating at the grain boundaries.This is the common precipitation-hardening procedure. The third method is to add a compound, in the form of small particles, that is insoluble in the parent material. Thus the two phases must be mixed in powder form and then sintered. This method is called dispersion hardening. At the present time there are only about a half dozen dispersionhardenable alloys in commercial use. The most notable ones are Al2O3 particles in aluminum (called SAP, for sintered aluminum powder) and ThO in nickel.
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