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32.7 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND TESTS
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Most mechanical properties are structure-sensitive; that is, they are affected by changes in either the lattice structure or the microstructure. However, modulus of elasticity is one property that is structure-insensitive. For example, ductility and toughness of any material (regardless of whether it is a pure element such as copper, a simple alloy such as AISI 1080 steel, or a complex alloy such as a cobalt-base superalloy) vary with grain size, amount of cold work if any, or the microstructure if heat-treated. The modulus of elasticity of any material is the same regardless of grain size, amount of cold work, or microstructure.
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SOLID MATERIALS 32.23
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Mechanical properties are discussed individually in the sections that follow. Several new quantitative relationships for the properties are presented here which make it possible to understand the mechanical properties to a depth that is not possible by means of the conventional tabular listings, where the properties of each material are listed separately.
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32.8 HARDNESS
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Hardness is used more frequently than any other of the mechanical properties by the design engineer to specify the final condition of a structural part. This is due in part to the fact that hardness tests are the least expensive in time and money to conduct. The test can be performed on a finished part without the need to machine a special test specimen. In other words, a hardness test may be a nondestructive test in that it can be performed on the actual part without affecting its service function. Hardness is frequently defined as a measure of the ability of a material to resist plastic deformation or penetration by an indenter having a spherical or conical end. At the present time, hardness is more a technological property of a material than it is a scientific or engineering property. In a sense, hardness tests are practical shop tests rather than basic scientific tests. All the hardness scales in use today give relative values rather than absolute ones. Even though some hardness scales, such as the Brinell, have units of stress (kg/mm2) associated with them, they are not absolute scales because a given piece of material (such as a 2-in cube of brass) will have significantly different Brinell hardness numbers depending on whether a 500-kg or a 3000-kg load is applied to the indenter.
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32.8.1 Rockwell Hardness The Rockwell hardnesses are hardness numbers obtained by an indentation type of test based on the depth of the indentation due to an increment of load. The Rockwell scales are by far the most frequently used hardness scales in industry even though they are completely relative. The reasons for their large acceptance are the simplicity of the testing apparatus, the short time necessary to obtain a reading, and the ease with which reproducible readings can be obtained, the last of these being due in part to the fact that the testing machine has a direct-reading dial; that is, a needle points directly to the actual hardness value without the need for referring to a conversion table or chart, as is true with the Brinell, Vickers, or Knoop hardnesses. Table 32.2 lists the most common Rockwell hardness scales.
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TABLE 32.2 Rockwell Hardness Scales
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SOLID MATERIALS 32.24
PERFORMANCE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS
Indenter 1 is a diamond cone having an included angle of 120 and a spherical end radius of 0.008 in. Indenters 2 and 3 are 1 16-in-diameter and 1 8-in-diameter balls, respectively. In addition to the preceding scales, there are several others for testing very soft bearing materials, such as babbit, that use 1 4-in-diameter and 1 2-in-diameter balls.Also, there are several superficial scales that use a special diamond cone with loads less than 50 kg to test the hardness of surface-hardened layers. The particular materials that each scale is used on are as follows: the A scale on the extremely hard materials, such as carbides or thin case-hardened layers on steel; the B scale on soft steels, copper and aluminum alloys, and soft-case irons; the C scale on medium and hard steels, hard-case irons, and all hard nonferrous alloys; the E and F scales on soft copper and aluminum alloys. The remaining scales are used on even softer alloys. Several precautions must be observed in the proper use of the Rockwell scales. The ball indenter should not be used on any material having a hardness greater than 50 RC; otherwise the steel ball will be plastically deformed or flattened and thus give erroneous readings. Readings taken on the sides of cylinders or spheres should be corrected for the curvature of the surface. Readings on the C scale of less than 20 should not be recorded or specified because they are unreliable and subject to much variation. The hardness numbers for all the Rockwell scales are an inverse measure of the depth of the indentation. Each division on the dial gauge of the Rockwell machine corresponds to an 80 106 in depth of penetration. The penetration with the C scale varies between 0.0005 in for hard steel and 0.0015 in for very soft steel when only the minor load is applied. The total depth of penetration with both the major and minor loads applied varies from 0.003 in for the hardest steel to 0.008 in for soft steel (20 RC). Since these indentations are relatively shallow, the Rockwell C hardness test is considered a nondestructive test and it can be used on fairly thin parts. Although negative hardness readings can be obtained on the Rockwell scales (akin to negative Fahrenheit temperature readings), they are usually not recorded as such, but rather a different scale is used that gives readings greater than zero. The only exception to this is when one wants to show a continuous trend in the change in hardness of a material due to some treatment. A good example of this is the case of the effect of cold work on the hardness of a fully annealed brass. Here the annealed hardness may be 20 RB and increase to 95 RB with severe cold work. 32.8.2 Brinell Hardness The Brinell hardness HB is the hardness number obtained by dividing the load that is applied to a spherical indenter by the surface area of the spherical indentation produced; it has units of kilograms per square millimeter. Most readings are taken with a 10-mm ball of either hardened steel or tungsten carbide. The loads that are applied vary from 500 kg for soft materials to 3000 kg for hard materials. The steel ball should not be used on materials having a hardness greater than about 525 HB (52 RC) because of the possibility of putting a flat spot on the ball and making it inaccurate for further use. The Brinell hardness machine is as simple as, though more massive than, the Rockwell hardness machine, but the standard model is not direct-reading and takes a longer time to obtain a reading than the Rockwell machine. In addition, the indentation is much larger than that produced by the Rockwell machine, and the machine cannot be used on hard steel. The method of operation, however, is simple. The prescribed load is applied to the 10-mm-diameter ball for approximately 10 s. The part
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