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32.13 CREEP STRENGTH
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A part may fail with a load that induced stresses in it that lie between the yield strength and the tensile strength of the material even if the load is steady and constant rather than alternating and repeating as in a fatigue failure. This type of constant loading causes the part to elongate or creep. The failure point may be when the part stretches to some specified length, or it may be when the part completely fractures. The creep strength of a material is the value of nominal stress that will result in a specified amount of elongation at a specific temperature in a given length of time. It is also defined as the value of nominal stress that induces a specified creep rate at a specific temperature. The creep strength is sometimes called the creep limit. The creep rate is the slope of the strain-time creep curve in the steady-creep region, referred to as a stage 2 creep. It is illustrated in Fig. 32.24. Most creep failures occur in parts that are exposed to high temperatures rather than room temperature. The stress necessary to cause creep at room temperature is considerably higher than the yield strength of a material. In fact, it is just slightly less than the tensile strength of a material. The stress necessary to induce creep at a temperature that is higher than the recrystallization temperature of a material, however, is very low.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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SOLID MATERIALS 32.46
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FIGURE 32.24 Creep data plotted on semilog coordinates. (a) Low stress (slightly above Sy) or low temperature (well below recrystallization); (b) moderate stress (midway between Sy and Su) or moderate temperature (at recrystallization); (c) high stress (slightly below Su) or high temperature (well above recrystallization). The elastic elongations are designated as 0a, 0b, and 0c.
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The specimens used for creep testing are quite similar to round tensile specimens. During the creep test the specimen is loaded with a dead weight that induces the required nominal stress applied throughout the entire test. The specimen is enclosed in a small round tube-type furnace to maintain a constant temperature throughout the test, and the gauge length is measured after various time intervals.Thus the three variables that affect the creep rate of the specimen are (1) nominal stress, (2) temperature, and (3) time. Figure 32.24 illustrates the most common method of presenting creep-test data. Three different curves are shown. Curve (a) is typical of a creep test conducted at a temperature well below the recrystallization temperature of the material (room temperature for steel) and at a fairly high stress level, slightly above the yield strength. Curve (a) is also typical of a creep test conducted at a temperature near the recrystallization temperature of a material but at a low stress level. Curve (c) is typical of either a high stress level, such as one slightly below Su, at a low temperature, or else a low stress level at a temperature significantly higher than the recrystallization temperature of the material. Curve (b) illustrates the creep rate at some intermediate combination of stress and temperature. A creep curve consists of four separate parts, as illustrated with curve (b) in Fig. 32.24. These are explained as follows: 1. An initial elastic extension from the origin 0 to point 0b. 2. A region of primary creep, frequently referred to as stage 1 creep. The extension occurs at a decreasing rate in this portion of the creep curve. 3. A region of secondary creep, frequently called stage 2 creep. The extension occurs at a constant rate in this region. Most creep design is based on this portion of the creep curve, since the creep rate is constant and the total extension for a given number of hours of service can be easily calculated. 4. A region of tertiary creep or stage 3 creep. The extension occurs at an increasing rate in this region until the material fractures.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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