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set: permanent change of length, height, or position after a spring is stressed beyond material s elastic limit. set point: stress at which some arbitrarily chosen amount of set (usually 2 percent) occurs; set percentage is the set divided by the deflection which produced it. set removal: an operation which causes a permanent loss of length or height because of spring deflection. solid height: length of a compression spring when deflected under load sufficient to bring all adjacent coils into contact. spiral springs: springs formed from flat strip or wire wound in the form of a spiral, loaded by torque about an axis normal to the plane of the spiral. spring index: ratio of mean diameter to wire diameter. squared and ground ends: see closed and ground ends. squared ends: see closed ends. squareness: angular deviation between the axis of a compression spring in a free state and a line normal to the end planes. stress range: difference in operating stresses at minimum and maximum loads. stress ratio: minimum stress divided by maximum stress. stress relief: a low-temperature heat treatment given springs to relieve residual stresses produced by prior cold forming. torque: see moment. total number of coils: the sum of the number of active and inactive coils in a spring body.
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6.3 SELECTION OF SPRING MATERIALS
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6.3.1 Chemical and Physical Characteristics Springs are resilient structures designed to undergo large deflections within their elastic range. It follows that the materials used in springs must have an extensive elastic range. Some materials are well known as spring materials. Although they are not specifically designed alloys, they do have the elastic range required. In steels, the mediumand high-carbon grades are suitable for springs. Beryllium copper and phosphor bronze are used when a copper-base alloy is required. The high-nickel alloys are used when high strength must be maintained in an elevated-temperature environment. The selection of material is always a cost-benefit decision. Some factors to be considered are costs, availability, formability, fatigue strength, corrosion resistance, stress relaxation, and electric conductivity. The right selection is usually a compromise among these factors. Table 6.1 lists some of the more commonly used metal alloys and includes data which are useful in material selection. Surface quality has a major influence on fatigue strength. This surface quality is a function of the control of the material manufacturing process. Materials with high surface integrity cost more than commercial grades but must be used for fatigue applications, particularly in the high cycle region.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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6.3.2 Heat Treatment of Springs Heat treatment is a term used in the spring industry to describe both low- and hightemperature heat treatments. Low-temperature heat treatment, from 350 to 950 F (175 to 510 C), is applied to springs after forming to reduce unfavorable residual stresses and to stabilize parts dimensionally. When steel materials are worked in the spring manufacturing process, the yield point is lowered by the unfavorable residual stresses. A low-temperature heat treatment restores the yield point. Most heat treatment is done in air, and the minor oxide that is formed does not impair the performance of the springs. When hardened high-carbon-steel parts are electroplated, a phenomenon known as hydrogen embrittlement occurs, in which hydrogen atoms diffuse into the metallic lattice, causing previously sound material to crack under sustained stress. Lowtemperature baking in the range of 375 to 450 F (190 to 230 C) for times ranging from 0.5 to 3 h, depending on the type of plating and the degree of embrittlement, will reduce the concentration of hydrogen to acceptable levels. High-temperature heat treatments are used to strengthen annealed material after spring forming. High-carbon steels are austenitized at 1480 to 1652 F (760 to 900 C), quenched to form martensite, and then tempered to final hardness. Some nickel-base alloys are strengthened by high-temperature aging. Oxidation will occur at these temperatures, and it is advisable to use a protective atmosphere in the furnace. Heat treatments for many common materials are listed in Table 6.2. Unless otherwise noted, 20 to 30 min at the specified temperature is sufficient. Thin, flimsy crosssectional springs can be distorted by the heat-treatment operation. Pretempered materials are available for use in such cases.
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6.3.3 Relaxation The primary concern in elevated-temperature applications is stress relaxation. Stress relaxation is the loss of load or spring length that occurs when a spring is held at load or cycled under load. Heat affects modulus and tensile strength. In addition to the factors of stress, time, and temperature which affect relaxation, other controllable factors are 1. Alloy type the highly alloyed materials are generally more temperatureresistant. 2. Residual stresses such stresses remaining from forming operations are detrimental to relaxation resistance. Use the highest practical stress-relief temperature. 3. Heat setting procedures employed to expose springs under some load to stress and heat to prepare them for a subsequent exposure. The effect is to remove the first stage of relaxation.
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6.3.4 Corrosion The specific effect of a corrosive environment on spring performance is difficult to predict. In general, if the environment causes damage to the spring surface, the life and the load-carrying ability of the spring will be reduced. The most common methods of combating corrosion are to use materials that are resistant or inert to the particular corrosive environment or to use coatings that slow
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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