barcode generator vb.net source code Ladle Analysis of a 1040 Steel in Software

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TABLE 33.3 Ladle Analysis of a 1040 Steel
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THE STRENGTH OF COLD-WORKED AND HEAT-TREATED STEELS 33.10
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PERFORMANCE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS
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TABLE 33.4 Jominy Test of a 1040 Steel
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tempered hardness, Rockwell C scale as-quenched hardness, Rockwell C scale tempering decrement, Rockwell C scale critical hardness for carbon content and tempering temperature, Rockwell C scale f = tempering factor of carbon content and tempering temperature A = sum of alloy increments, Rockwell C scale
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RT RQ D B
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From the appropriate figures for tempering for 2 hours at 1000 F, we have D = 5.4 (Fig. 33.3) B = 10 (Fig. 33.4) f = 0.34 (Fig. 33.5) AMn = 1.9 (Fig. 33.6) ASi = 0.7 (Fig. 33.7) A = 2.6
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The transition from Eq. (33.1) to Eq. (33.2) occurs at a Rockwell hardness determined by equating these two expressions: (RQ 5.4 10)0.34 + 10 + 2.6 = RQ 5.4 from which RQ = 19.3, Rockwell C scale. The softening at each station and corresponding ultimate tensile strength can be found using Eq. (33.1) or Eq. (33.2) as appropriate and converting RT to Brinell hardness and then to tensile strength or converting directly from RT to tensile strength. Table 33.5 displays the sequence of steps in estimating the softening due to tempering at each Jominy distance of interest. A shaft made from this material, quenched in oil (H = 0.35) and tempered for 2 hours at 1000 F would have surface properties that are a function of the shaft s diameter. Figures 33.8 through 33.11 express graphically and Tables 33.6 through 33.9 express numerically the equivalent Jominy distance for the surface and interior of rounds for various severities of quench. A 1-in-diameter round has a rate of cooling at the surface that is the same as at Jominy distance 5.1 (see Table 33.6). This means an as-quenched hardness of about 15.9 and a surface ultimate strength of about 105.7 kpsi. Similar determinations for other diameters in the range 0.1 to 4 in lead to the display that is Table 33.10. A table such as this is valuable to the designer and can be routinely produced by computer [33.5]. A plot of the surface ultimate strength versus diameter from this table provides the 1000 F contour shown in Fig. 33.12. An estimate of 0.2 percent yield strength at the surface can be made (after Ref. [33.4], p. 191): Sy = [0.92 0.006(Rmax RQ)]Su (33.3)
The quench severity H is the ratio of the film coefficient of convective heat transfer h [Btu/(h in2 F)] to the thermal conductivity of the metal k [Btu/(h in F)], making the units of H in 1.
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THE STRENGTH OF COLD-WORKED AND HEAT-TREATED STEELS 33.11
THE STRENGTH OF COLD-WORKED AND HEAT-TREATED STEELS
FIGURE 33.3 Hardness decrement D caused by tempering for unhardened steel. (From [33.4] with permission of Pitman Publishing Ltd., London.)
where Rmax = maximum Rockwell C-scale hardness attainable for this steel, 32 + 60(%C), and RQ = as-quenched hardness.An estimate of yield strength at the surface of a 1-in round of this material is as follows (equivalent Jominy distance is 5.1): Sy = [0.92 0.006(55 25)]105.7 = 78.2 kpsi Different properties exist at different radii. For example, at the center of a 1-in round the properties are the same as at Jominy distance 6.6, namely, a predicted ultimate strength of 104.5 kpsi and a yield strength of 76.3 kpsi, which are not very different from surface conditions. This is not always the case.
33.6 ESTIMATING ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF HEAT-TREATED LOW-ALLOY STEELS
For heat-treated low-alloy steels, the addition method of Crafts and Lamont changes only in that additional constituents are present in the A term if a Jominy test is
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