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TABLE 6.1 Typical Properties of Common Spring Materials
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6.8 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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6.9 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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TABLE 6.2 Typical Heat Treatments for Springs after Forming
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down the rate of corrosion attack on the base metal. The latter approach is most often the most cost-effective method. Spring Wire. The tensile strength of spring wire varies inversely with the wire diameter (Fig. 6.1). Common spring wires with the highest strengths are ASTM A228 (music wire) and ASTM A401 (oil-tempered chrome silicon). Wires having slightly lower tensile strength and with surface quality suitable for fatigue applications are ASTM A313 type 302 (stainless steel), ASTM A230 (oil-tempered carbon valve-spring-quality steel), and ASTM A232 (oil-tempered chrome vanadium). For most static applica-
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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6.11 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
FIGURE 6.1 Minimum tensile strengths of spring wire. (Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.)
SPRINGS 6.12
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tions ASTM A227 (hard-drawn carbon steel) and ASTM A229 (oil-tempered carbon steel) are available at lower strength levels. Table 6.3 ranks the relative costs of common spring materials based on hard-drawn carbon steel as 1.0. Spring Strip. Most flat springs are made from AISI grades 1050, 1065, 1074, and 1095 steel strip. Strength and formability characteristics are shown in Fig. 6.2, covering the range of carbon content from 1050 to 1095. Since all carbon levels can be obtained at all strength levels, the curves are not identified by composition. Figure 6.3 shows the tensile strength versus Rockwell hardness for tempered carbon-steel strip. Edge configurations for steel strip are shown in Fig. 6.4. Formability of annealed spring steels is shown in Table 6.4, and typical properties of various spring-tempered alloy strip materials are shown in Table 6.5.
6.4 HELICAL COMPRESSION SPRINGS
6.4.1 General A helical compression spring is an open-pitch spring which is used to resist applied compression forces or to store energy. It can be made in a variety of configurations and from different shapes of wire, depending on the application. Round, highcarbon-steel wire is the most common spring material, but other shapes and compositions may be required by space and environmental conditions. Usually the spring has a uniform coil diameter for its entire length. Conical, barrel, and hourglass shapes are a few of the special shapes used to meet particular load-deflection requirements.
TABLE 6.3 Ranking of Relative Costs of Common Spring Wires
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SPRINGS 6.13
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Helical compression springs are stressed in the torsional mode. The stresses, in the elastic range, are not uniform about the wire s cross section. The stress is greatest at the surface of the wire and, in particular, at the inside diameter (ID) of the spring. In some circumstances, residual bending stresses are present as well. In such cases, the bending stresses become negligible after set is removed (or the elastic limit is exceeded) and the stresses are redistributed more uniformly about the cross section. 6.4.2 Compression Spring Terminology The definitions that follow are for terms which have evolved and are commonly used in the spring industry. Figure 6.5 shows the relationships among the characteristics. Wire Diameter d. Round wire is the most economical form. Rectangular wire is used in situations where space is limited, usually to reduce solid height. Coil Diameter. The outside diameter (OD) is specified when a spring operates in a cavity.The inside diameter is specified when the spring is to operate over a rod.The mean diameter D is either OD minus the wire size or ID plus the wire size. The coil diameter increases when a spring is compressed. The increase, though small, must be considered whenever clearances could be a problem. The diameter increase is a function of the spring pitch and follows the equation ODat solid = where p = pitch and d = wire size. D2 p2
(6.1)
FIGURE 6.2 Minimum transverse bending radii for various tempers and thicknesses of tempered spring steel. (Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.)
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