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TABLE 6.8 Free-Length Tolerances of Squared and Ground Helical Compression Springs
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SPRINGS 6.29
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TABLE 6.9 Coil Diameter Tolerances of Helical Compression and Extension Springs
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6.5 HELICAL EXTENSION SPRINGS
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6.5.1 General Helical extension springs store energy and exert a pulling force. They are usually made from round wire and are close-wound with initial tension. They have various types of end hooks or loops by which they are attached to the loads. Like compression springs, extension springs are stressed in torsion in the body coils. The design procedures for the body coil are similar to those discussed in Sec. 6.4 except for the initial tension and the hook stresses. Most extension springs are made with the body coils held tightly together by a force called initial tension. The measure of initial tension is the load required to overcome the internal force and start coil separation. Extension springs, unlike compression springs, seldom have set removed. Furthermore, they have no solid stop to prevent overloading. For these reasons, the design stresses are normally held to lower values than those for compression springs. The pulling force exerted by an extension spring is transmitted to the body coils through hooks or loops. Careful attention must be given to the stresses in the hooks. The hook ends must be free of damaging tool marks so that spring performance will not be limited by hook failure.
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TABLE 6.10 Load Tolerances of Helical Compression Springs
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SPRINGS 6.31
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6.5.2 Initial Tension Initial tension is illustrated in Fig. 6.18. The point of intersection on the ordinate is initial tension PI . The amount of initial tension is governed by the spring index, material, method of manufacture, and the post-stress-relief heat treatment temperature. Note that a high stress-relief temperature can reduce the initial tension. This is sometimes used as a means to control initial tension in low-stress, low-index springs. It follows that an extension spring requiring no initial tension can be made either by removing the initial tension with heat treatment or by keeping the coils open during coiling. The levels of initial tension obtainable are shown in Fig. 6.19. 6.5.3 Types of Ends Extension springs require a means of attachment to the system which is to be loaded. A variety of end configurations have been developed over the years. The configurations most commonly used are shown in Fig. 6.20. Loops or hooks longer than recommended will require special setup and are more expensive. Specifying an angular relationship for the loops may also add to the cost. Allow a random relationship of loops whenever possible. Stresses in the loops are often higher than those in the body coils. In such cases, the loops are the performance limiters, particularly in cyclic applications. Generous bend radii, elimination of tool marks, and a reduced diameter of end coils are methods used to reduce loop stresses. In a full-twist loop, stress reaches a maximum in bending at point A (Fig. 6.21) and a maximum in torsion at point B. The stresses at these locations are complex, but useful approximations are, for bending, SA = 16K 1DP 4P + d 3 d 2 (6.19)
FIGURE 6.18 Load-deflection curve for a helical extension spring with initial tension. (Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.)
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