barcode generator vb.net source code HELICAL TORSION SPRINGS in Software

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6.6 HELICAL TORSION SPRINGS
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Helical springs that exert a torque or store rotational energy are known as torsion springs. The most frequently used configuration of a torsion spring is the single-body type (Fig. 6.23). Double-bodied springs, known as double-torsion springs, are sometimes used where dictated by restrictive torque, stress, and space requirements. It is often less costly to make a pair of single-torsion springs than a double-torsion type.
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TABLE 6.13 Commercial Free-Length Tolerances for Helical Extension Springs with Initial Tension
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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SPRINGS 6.37
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SPRINGS
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TABLE 6.14 Tolerances on Angular Relationship of Extension Spring Ends
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Torsion springs are used in spring-loaded hinges, oven doors, clothespins, window shades, ratchets, counterbalances, cameras, door locks, door checks, and many other applications.Torsion springs are almost always mounted on a shaft or arbor with one end fixed. They can be wound either right or left hand. In most cases the springs are not stress-relieved and are loaded in the direction that winds them up or causes a decrease in body diameter. The residual forming stresses which remain are favorable in that direction. Although it is possible to load a torsion spring in the direction to unwind and enlarge the body coils, ordinarily it is not good design practice and should be avoided. Residual stresses in the unwind direction are unfavorable. Torsion springs which are plated or painted and subsequently baked or are stress-relieved will have essentially no residual stresses and can be loaded in either direction, but at lower stress levels than springs which are not heat-treated. Correlation of test results between manufacturer and user may be difficult because there are few, if any, standardized torsion-spring testing machines. The springs will have varying degrees of intercoil friction and friction between the mounting arbor and the body coils. Often, duplicate test fixtures must be made and test methods coordinated.
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FIGURE 6.23 Specifying load and deflection requirements for torsion spring: = angle between ends; P = load on ends at ; L = moment arm; = angular deflection from free position. (Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.)
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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SPRINGS 6.38
MACHINE ELEMENTS THAT ABSORB AND STORE ENERGY
Spring ends most commonly used are shown in Fig. 6.24, although the possible variations are unlimited. In considering spring mounting, it must be recognized that for each turn of windup, the overall length L of the spring body will increase as L1 = d(Na + 1 + ) where = deflection in revolutions. Also note that the body coil diameter will be reduced to D= DINa Na + (6.31) (6.30)
where DI = initial mean coil diameter. Experience indicates that the diameter of the arbor over which the spring operates should be approximately 90 percent of the smallest inside diameter to which the spring is reduced under maximum load. Too large an arbor will interfere with deflection, while too small an arbor will provide too little support. Both conditions lead to unexpectedly early failure. Coil diameter tolerances are given in Table 6.17.
6.6.1 Spring Rate The spring rate, or moment per turn, is given by k= Ed 4 M = 10.8DNa (6.32)
FIGURE 6.24 Common helical torsion-spring end configurations. (Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.)
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SPRINGS 6.39
SPRINGS
The number of coils is equal to the number of body coils plus a contribution from the ends. The effect is more pronounced when the ends are long. The number of equivalent coils in the ends is Ne = L1 + L2 3 D (6.33)
where L1 and L2 = lengths of ends, and so Na = Nb + Ne , where Nb = number of body coils. The load should be specified at a fixed angular relationship of the spring ends rather than at a specific angular deflection from free or load positions. Helical torsion springs are stressed in bending. Rectangular sections are more efficient than round sections, but round sections are normally used because there is usually a premium cost for rectangular wire.
6.6.2 Stresses Stress in round-wire torsion springs is given by S= 32K BM d 3 (6.34)
where KB = a stress correction factor. Stress is higher on the inner surface of the coil. A useful approximation of this factor is KB = 4C 1 4C 4 (6.35)
6.6.3 Rectangular-Wire Torsion Springs When rectangular wire is formed into coils, it approaches a keystone according to the relation bI = b C + 0.5 C (6.36)
where bI = axial dimension b after keystoning. The radial dimension is always t. The rate equation is k= Ebt3 M = 6.6DNa (6.37)
Stress in rectangular-wire torsion springs is given by S= 6K BM bt2 (6.38)
where KBID = 4C/(4C 3) and b = axial dimension of rectangular cross section. Maximum recommended stresses are given in Table 6.15 for static applications and in Table 6.16 for cyclic applications.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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