barcode generator vb.net source code SPECIAL SPRING WASHERS in Software

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6.8 SPECIAL SPRING WASHERS
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Spring washers are being used increasingly in applications where there is a requirement for miniaturization and compactness of design. They are used to absorb vibrations and both side and end play, to distribute loads, and to control end pressure. Design equations have been developed for determining the spring characteristics of curved, wave, and Belleville washers. There are no special design equations for slotted and finger washers. They are approximated by using Belleville and cantilever equations and then are refined through sampling and testing. 6.8.1 Curved Washers These springs (Fig. 6.35) exert relatively light thrust loads and are often used to absorb axial end play. The designer must provide space for diametral expansion which occurs as the washer is compressed during loading. Bearing surfaces should be hard, since the washer edges tend to dig in. The spring rate is approximately linear up to 80 percent of the available deflection. Beyond that the rate will be much higher than calculated. Load tolerance should not be specified closer than 20 percent. Approximate equations are P= and S= 1.5KP t2 (6.45) 4fEt 3 OD2(K) (6.44)
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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FIGURE 6.35 Curved washer. (Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.)
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where K is given in Fig. 6.36 and f is 80 percent of h or less. Maximum recommended stress levels for static operations are given in Table 6.22. Favorable residual stresses can be induced by shot peening and, to a lesser extent, by removing set. The maximum recommended stresses for cyclic applications are given in Table 6.23. Tensile strengths for carbon steel are obtained from Fig. 6.3. 6.8.2 Wave Washer These spring washers (Fig. 6.37) are regularly used in thrust loading applications, for small deflections, and for light to medium loads. The rate is linear between 20 and 80 percent of available deflection. Load tolerances should be no less than 20 percent. In the most commonly used range of sizes, these washers can have three, four, or six waves.
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FIGURE 6.36 Empirical correction factor K for curved spring washers. (Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.)
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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TABLE 6.22 Maximum Recommended Operating Stress Levels for Special Spring Washers in Static Applications
TABLE 6.23 Maximum Recommended Operating Stress Levels for Steel Curved and Wave Washers in Cyclic Applications
Design equations are P Ebt 3N 4(OD) = 2.4D3(ID) f S= 3 PD 4bt 2N 2 (6.46)
(6.47)
where D = OD b. The washer expands in diameter when compressed, according to the formula D = D2 + 0.458h2N 2 (6.48)
Maximum recommended stress levels for static applications are given in Table 6.22. Favorable residual stresses are induced by shot peening or removing set. Table 6.23 gives the maximum recommended stress levels for cyclic applications. Figure 6.3 provides tensile strengths for carbon steel.
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FIGURE 6.37 Typical wave spring washer. (Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.)
6.8.3 Finger Washers Finger washers (Fig. 6.38) have both the flexibility of curved washers and the distributed points of loading of wave washers. They are calculated, approximately, as groups of cantilever springs; then samples are made and tested to prove the design. They are most frequently used in static applications such as applying axial load to ball-bearing races to reduce vibration and noise.These washers are not used in cyclic applications because of the shear cuts.
6.8.4 Slotted Washers These are more flexible than plain dished washers but should be designed to maintain a constant pressure rather than to operate through a deflection range (see Fig. 6.39).
FIGURE 6.38 Finger washer. (Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.)
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