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FIGURE 6.50 Typical normalized torque-revolution curve for power springs. (Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.)
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D2 D2 c a 2.55t
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then Da = D2 2.55Lt = 12.72 mm and Da /t = 22. c The equation for the number of turns a power spring will deliver, when it occupies half the space between arbor and case, is = 2(D2 + D 2 ) (Dc + Da) c a 2.55t (6.68)
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In this example = 10 r. Experience shows that highly stressed power springs, made from pretempered AISI 1095 steel with a hardness of HRC 50 to 52 and stressed to 100 percent of tensile strength, could be expected to provide approximately 10 000 full-stroke life cycles. If the maximum stress were 50 percent of tensile strength at full stroke, then a life of about 100 000 cycles could be expected. The final design is as follows: t = 0.023 in (0.58 mm) 1095 carbon steel, HRC 51, no. 1 round edge b = 0.394 in (10 mm) L = 98.188 in (2494 mm) Da = 0.501 in (12.72 mm) Dc = 2.443 in (62.06 mm)
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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TABLE 6.27 Torque per Unit of Width at Maximum Allowable Stress for Steel; L/t Range Is 5000 to 10 000
6.13 HOT-WOUND SPRINGS
6.13.1 Introduction Springs are usually cold-formed when bar or wire diameters are less than 10 mm (approximately 3 8 in). When the bar diameter exceeds 16 mm (approximately 5 8 in), cold forming becomes impractical and springs are hot-wound. Hot winding involves heating the steel into the austenitic range, winding hot, quenching to form martensite, and then tempering to the required properties. Although the most common types of hot-wound springs are compression springs for highway, off-highway, and railroad-vehicle suspension applications, torsion and extension springs can also be hot-wound.
6.13.2 Special Design Considerations Design equations for hot-wound springs are the same as those for cold-formed springs except for the use of an empirical factor K H which adjusts for effects related to hot-winding springs. Multiply the spring rate by K H.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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FIGURE 6.51 Average maximum solid stress in carbon-steel power springs. (Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.)
FIGURE 6.52 Relationships among number of revolutions, case diameter, strip length, and thickness for power springs. (Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.)
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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The values for factor K H are 0.91 for springs made from hot-rolled carbon or lowalloy steel, not centerless ground; 0.96 for springs made from hot-rolled carbon or low-alloy steel, centerless ground; and 0.95 for torsion springs made from carbon or low-alloy steel. The ends of hot-wound springs can be open or squared or either ground or not ground. Solid height is calculated in the same way as for cold-wound springs; but when space is limited, L s can be reduced to (Nt 0.5)d by using a heavy grind. The end configurations of extension or torsion springs must be formed hot at the same time as the spring is wound. If the configuration is complex, they may become cool in the process, and the whole spring may have to be reheated into the austenitic range. Note that hot-wound extension springs cannot have initial tension. 6.13.3 Materials The common hot-wound alloys are AISI 5160, 5160H, and 1095 steels. The normal range of hardness is from HRC 44 to 48. Corresponding tensile strengths are 1430 to 1635 MPa. The hot-rolled wire used in hot-wound springs is produced in standard sizes. Bar diameter variation and bar out-of-roundness tolerances are approximated in Table 6.28.
6.13.4 Choice of Operating Stress Static Applications. The stress is calculated as in cold-wound springs. Use Table 6.29 for set-point information. Cyclic Applications. Hot-wound springs made from hot-rolled wire are used in cyclic applications because rolled bars are subject to a variety of characteristic material defects mostly related to the bar surface condition. Therefore Table 6.30 can be
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