barcode generator vb.net source code CLUTCHES AND BRAKES 8.13 in Software

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CLUTCHES AND BRAKES 8.13
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CLUTCHES AND BRAKES
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FIGURE 8.9 Automotive disk brake. (Chrysler Corporation.)
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8.1.4 Selecting a Brake To help narrow the choice of a brake, Table 8.2 has been provided. Some general indicators are given for performance requirements and environmental conditions. Typical applications are listed as well. The brake factor is the ratio of the frictional braking force developed to the actuating force. Note that temperature considerations have been omitted from the environmental conditions in Table 8.2. For high temperatures, the capacity of all brakes listed is limited by the type of friction material. The performance of all brakes listed is con-
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CLUTCHES AND BRAKES 8.14
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MACHINE ELEMENTS THAT ABSORB AND STORE ENERGY
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sidered good for low temperatures, but ice buildup must be avoided.
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8.2 TORQUE AND ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS
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In selecting or designing a clutch, the torque requirement, energy dissipation, and temperature rise are the principal factors to be considered. The torque requirement and energy dissipation are covered in this section. Estimating temperature rise is the subject of Sec. 8.3.
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8.2.1 Torque Requirement: Clutches The torque requirement of a clutch will have to be substantially greater than the nominal FIGURE 8.10 A pneumatically actutorque it is transmitting in order to accelerate ated brake using an expandable tube. the load. The character of the prime-mover (Eaton Corporation.) output torque and of the load torque also influences the designer s selection of torque capacity. Gagne [8.4] recommended the following technique for calculating clutch capacity for design purposes. Calculate the design torque as a multiple of the nominal torque T: Tdes = KST (8.1)
where KS = service factor taking into account the load inertia, the character of the prime mover s output torque, and the character of the load torque. The service factor KS is
2 2 2 KS = (FS + FD + F L 2)1/2
(8.2)
where FS, FD, and FL are the starting, prime-mover, and load factors, respectively. Recommended values for these factors are given in Tables 8.3 to 8.5. Note that if each factor is unity, the service factor is unity also. But the service factor KS will usually be greater than unity. Indeed, an old rule of thumb was that the clutch should be designed for a torque capacity at least twice the nominal torque. Example 1. A multicylinder diesel engine is used to drive an electric generator in a hospital s emergency-power facility. What service factor should be used Solution. From Table 8.3, a reasonable selection of values for the torque factors is FS = 2, FD = 1.5, and FL = 1.0. The corresponding service factor is KS = [22 + (1.5)2 + (1.0)2 2]1/2 = 2.29
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CLUTCHES AND BRAKES
TABLE 8.2 Selecting the Right Brake
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CLUTCHES AND BRAKES 8.16
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TABLE 8.3 Suggested Values of Torque Starting Factor FS for Friction Clutches
TABLE 8.4 Suggested Values of Torque Drive (Prime-Mover) Factor FD for Friction Clutches
TABLE 8.5 Suggested Values of Torque Load Factor FL for Friction Clutches
8.2.2 Equivalent Inertias Two shafts geared together and rotating at different speeds are shown in Fig. 8.11a. The inertias I1 and I2 are each assumed to include the corresponding shaft and gear. For design calculations, it is necessary to have an equivalent inertia for the whole system referred to a single shaft. Figure 8.11b and c shows this. In each case an equivalent inertia has been added to the shaft. So I2 is the equivalent inertia on shaft 1 of shaft 2 and its hardware. Similarly, I1 is the equivalent inertia on shaft 2 of shaft 1 and its hardware. A simple way to find the equivalent inertia is to equate the kinetic energies of the actual and equivalent inertias. Thus, to find the equivalent inertia I2 referred to shaft 1 (Fig. 8.11b), we write 1 1 I 2 2 = I2 2 1 2 2 2 Thus I2 = 2 1
(8.3)
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