barcode vb.net 2010 FIGURE 10.51 Hardness as a function of temperature for several steels. in Software

Creating UPC - 13 in Software FIGURE 10.51 Hardness as a function of temperature for several steels.

FIGURE 10.51 Hardness as a function of temperature for several steels.
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HELICAL GEARS 10.52
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GEARING
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high-speed range. In the case of low-speed gears, however, not only is wear a significant problem, but also it can be the limiting factor in defining the load capacity of the mesh. In low-speed gear drives, the film which separates the mating tooth surfaces is insufficient to prevent metal-to-metal contact; thus wear occurs. In higher-speed gears, the film becomes somewhat thicker, and gross contact of the mating surfaces is prevented. Indeed, grinding lines are still visible on many aircraft gears after hundreds of hours of operation.The type of surface distress which will occur in a gear set is dependent, to a certain extent, on the pitch line velocity. As shown in Fig. 10.52, wear predominates in the lower-speed range, while scoring rules the upper-speed range. In the midrange, pitting controls the gear life.
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FIGURE 10.52 Gear distress as a function of pitch line velocity.
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The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness can provide some guidance in the evaluation of the wear potential of a gear set. Care must be used in the application of these methods, since the existing data are far from complete and there are many instances of contradictory results. One of the simplest approaches is due to Dowson; see Ref. [10.7] and Chap. 20. The equation is h (4.46 10 5)( E )0.54[ ou/(E R )]0.70 = R [w/(E R )]0.13 where (10.84)
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h = calculated minimum film thickness, in R = relative radius of curvature in transverse plane at pitch point, in = lubricant pressure-viscosity coefficient, in2/lb E = effective elastic modulus, psi o = sump lubricant viscosity, centipoise (cP) u = rolling velocity in transverse plane, inches per second (in/s) w = load per unit length of contact, lb/in
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HELICAL GEARS 10.53
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HELICAL GEARS
Wellauer and Holloway ([10.8]) present a nomograph to compute the film thickness at the pitch point; but this nomograph is quite detailed and is not included here. The parameter of interest in our discussion is not the film thickness itself, but rather the ratio of the film thickness to the relative surface roughness. This ratio is defined as the specific film thickness and is given by = h S (10.85)
The relative surface roughness [root-mean-square (rms)] is given by S = SP + SG 2 (10.86)
Typical values for various gear manufacturing processes are shown in Table 10.7.
TABLE 10.7 Tooth Surface Texture in the As-Finished Condition
Once the specific film thickness has been determined, the probability of surface distress occurring can be determined through the use of Fig. 10.53. Although the data presented thus far can be quite useful, several factors must be kept in mind in applying them to actual design. Most of the experimental data on which this information is based were obtained from through-hardened gear sets operating with petroleum-based oils. Gears operating with synthetic oils appear able to operate successfully at film thicknesses much less than those predicted by this analysis. The same is true for case-hardened gears of 59 RC and higher hardness. The results may be further altered by the use of friction modifiers or EP additives in the oil. Finally, wear, of and by itself, is not necessarily a failure. In many cases, wear is an acceptable condition; it is simply monitored until it reaches some predetermined level, at which time the gears are replaced. Perhaps the most useful application for this analysis is as a comparative, relative rating tool, rather than as an absolute design criterion. The occurrence of wear is difficult to predict, but the rate of wear is even more so. Equation (10.87) may be useful as a guide in predicting wear, but its accuracy has not been rigorously verified:
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