barcode vb.net 2010 A Type 1/2 Hybrid Response in Action in Software

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A Type 1/2 Hybrid Response in Action
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A hybrid design for handling changes in company names is illustrated in Figure 8-6. The customer dimension in the figure records company names in two columns: company_name_current will capture the current name of the company. This attribute will exhibit type 1 behavior. When a company name changes, it will be updated. company_name_historic will capture the detailed history of company names. This attribute will exhibit type 2 behavior. When a company name changes, a new row will be created to capture the new value. The new row will be associated with any subsequent transactions added to a fact table.
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CUSTOMER customer_key company_id Hybrid SCD company_name_current company_name_historic . . . SK NK 1 2 ORDER_FACTS
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Figure 8-6 Hybrid treatment of changes to company name
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Processing a Change Suppose one of the companies in the customer table is Apple Computer. You may recall that in 2007 the company changed its name from Apple Computer, Inc. to Apple Inc. Imagine that products have been ordered by Apple, both before and after the name change. Figure 8-7 illustrates the two-step process that occurs when the name of the company changes. The top of the figure shows the row for Apple that was in place prior to the name change. The natural key for Apple is BB770. It has one row in the customer table, with a surrogate key value of 1011. The column company_name_current shows the name of the company as Apple Computer, Inc. There have been no changes as of yet, so company_ name_historic contains the same value. The lower half of Figure 8-7 shows what happens when the name of the company changes:
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1. The first row shows the previously existing record, with surrogate key value 1011. The company_name_current column is updated with the new company name Apple Inc. This is the type 1 response. The company_name_historic value is untouched, since it is treated as type 2. 2. To process the type 2 change, a new row is added. It contains the new name Apple Inc. in both the company_name_current and company_name_historic columns. This new row is assigned a new surrogate key, 2822, which will be used for new rows in associated fact tables. This may appear convoluted, but it is no different from processing any table that contains both type 1 and type 2 attributes. The only difference is that both attributes happen to have the same source.
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Using the Company Name Columns Facts can now be studied in two ways. When you want to be able to capture all orders under the new name (Apple Inc.), you can use the column company_name_current. This might be done to filter a query or to group aggregated facts. All activity with Apple is associated with the same name: Apple Inc. This is particularly useful for producing this year versus last year comparisons; all orders will have the same name, even if it recently changed. When you want to group orders under historically accurate company names, you can use the company_name_historic. Transactions that took place before Apple s name change
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8 More Slow Change Techniques 189
CUSTOMER customer_ key 1011 company_ id BB770 company_name _current Apple Computer, Inc. company_name _historic Apple Computer, Inc.
Name changes to Apple Inc.
CUSTOMER customer_ key 1011 company_ id BB770 company_name _current Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Inc. 2822 BB770 Apple Inc. 1 Apple Inc. company_name _historic Apple Computer, Inc.
Old row(s) updated with new company_name_current Row is added with new name in both positions
Figure 8-7
A type 1/2 hybrid change in action
are grouped under Apple Computer, Inc. Transactions that took place after the name change are grouped under Apple Inc. This state of affairs is illustrated in Figure 8-8.
Repeatable Process The hybrid response is repeatable. Each time a company changes, the same two-step process is followed. First, all existing rows with the same natural key have their _current value updated. Second, a new row is added, with _current and _historic initialized to the new value. Suppose that Apple decides to change its name again. The iPod and iPhone have been so successful they might rename the company iApple Inc. Figure 8-9 shows how this change would be processed. First, the existing records in the dimension table for Apple, which is company BB770, are updated with the new company_name_current. This time around, there are two records to be updated: those identified by surrogate keys 1011 and 2822. That takes care of the type 1 processing. Second, a new row is added to the table for iApple. This row records the new name, iApple Inc., in both the company_name_current and company_name_historic columns.
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