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10 Recursive Hierarchies and Bridges 251
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Figure 10-18 A relationship change generates type 2 changes for all members of the hierarchy
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By processing a type 2 change for every member of the hierarchy, we avoid the problem encountered earlier. A user looking up from Company H will still use its natural key to constrain the query, and this will still pick up H and H-1. However, no new transactions will be added above H, since those companies have undergone type 2 changes as well. The only facts that will be counted are those that were in place above H before the change, or above H-1 after the change (none). Any new transactions with Companies F, E, or A will be associated with F-1, E-1, or A-1. These rows have no association with any version of Company H, so they will not be counted. TIP When the relationships between members of a hierarchy change, process a type 2 change for each member and add the new relationships to the bridge table. Other solutions may lead to erroneous query results. Time-stamped rows in the bridge table are an alternative, but will require that each query be carefully qualified in correlation with the granular facts. Even trained developers are likely to err when writing SQL to do this. In addition, business intelligence tools may not be able to generate the required SQL, and query performance may be degraded. Rippling the change is a far safer solution.
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Variations on the Hierarchy Bridge
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Further design options are possible for the hierarchy bridge. Embellishments to the basic design discussed in this chapter include the addition of effective and expiration dates and additional flags to signal the top or bottom of a hierarchy. It is also possible to construct a bridge that does not require each member to have only one parent, or to construct multiple bridges if there are multiple alternative hierarchies.
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Additional columns can be added to the hierarchy bridge to add to the analytic possibilities. It is extremely useful to add effective and expiration dates to each row, not to avoid the ripple effect, but to enable study of the hierarchy itself. Some designs also benefit from the addition of flags that indicate the top or bottom node of a hierarchy tree.
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Part III
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Dimension Design
Effective and Expiration Date Stamps
Every hierarchy bridge table should include a pair of columns that indicate the effective and expiration dates for each row. Like the time-stamped dimensions described in 8, this permits point-in-time analysis of the hierarchy itself. Without these additional columns, it is impossible to know what the hierarchy looked like at a particular point in time, unless there happens to be a fact in a related fact table for the date in question. As with a time-stamped dimension, when a row in the bridge table is superseded by a new row, the old row s expiration date should be set to the day prior to the new row s effective date. If the grain at which changes are tracked is finer than the day, these date stamps can be supplemented with a pair of time stamps. The effective and expiration dates can be used together to qualify a query that produces a picture of the hierarchy at a particular point in time. The logic is much the same as it was for dimension tables. For example, if columns called effective_date and expiration_date were added to the table company_hierarchy_bridge, the state of affairs on December 23, 2008, could be determined by adding the following to the query predicate:
where company_hierarchy_bridge.effective_date <= 1/23/2008 aND company_hierarchy_bridge.expiration_date >= 1/23/2008
These dates are added for the purpose of understanding the hierarchy itself over time, in the same way that time-stamped dimensions allow study of the dimension over time as explained in 8, More Slow Change Techniques. Even if time stamps are added to the dimension table, it is advisable that type 2 slow changes to the dimension table or bridge be processed in accordance with the ripple effect described in this chapter. Use of time stamps to qualify bridge and dimension rows in a query involving a fact table is wide open to errors and may negatively impact performance. TIP Add effective and expiration dates to the hierarchy bridge table. These will allow identification of the hierarchy at any point in time, regardless of the presence of facts. Do not rely on these dates to avoid the ripple effect of type 2 slow changes. If it is not expected that anyone will analyze the hierarchy without involving a fact table, this extra information is still highly useful. It provides a way to track the accuracy of the ETL process, perform quality assurance checks on the state of the bridge table, and troubleshoot potential issues with the bridge table.
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